The Botanical Review

, Volume 74, Issue 1, pp 178–196 | Cite as

The Impact of Ecology and Biogeography on Legume Diversity, Endemism, and Phylogeny in the Caribbean Region: A New Direction in Historical Biogeography

Article

Abstract

The legume family is so well represented in the Caribbean that if a preserve was needed somewhere on earth to harbor all of the primary lineages in this family, the flora of just Cuba would suffice. Molecular phylogenetic, biogeographic, and evolutionary rates analysis all suggest that legume diversity and endemism in the Caribbean are mostly of recent origin and are likely a function of the abundance of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) throughout the neotropics. Legumes have a strong ecological affinity for SDTFs, and the Caribbean basin is well covered by this forest type. Rate-variable molecular clock analysis suggests that the majority of worldwide island lineages of legumes have ages of much less than 30 Ma. Singular historical events invoking land bridges or mobile continental plates are thus not needed to explain Caribbean legume diversity and endemism. The Greater Antilles are large islands located close to the American continent. They are therefore expected to fairly represent the diverse continental lineages of legumes. Yet, they are distant enough to be dispersal limited. As such, island lineages can speciate and diversify over evolutionary time unimpeded by high rates of immigration from the mainland. Vicariance and other standard phylogenetic methods of historical biogeography are likely to be replaced by those of ecological and island biogeography. This is because model selection approaches derived from the neutral concept of isolation by distance will be able to quantify patterns of alpha and beta diversity and detect niche assembly and phylogenetic niche conservatism within and among metacommunities that are hypothesized to constrain phylogeny.

Resumen

La familia leguminosa está tan bien representada en el Caribe, que si fuera necesario preservar algún sitio sobre la tierra, que albergue todos los linajes principales de esta familia, la isla de Cuba, con su flora endémica, podría ser seleccionada entre las áreas que cumplen esta condición. Todos los análisis moleculares, filogeneticos, biogeográficos y de tasas de evolución sugieren que la diversidad y endemismo de las leguminosas en la región del Caribe, es en la mayoría de los casos, de origen reciente y es probablemente una función de la abundancia de los bosques tropicales estacionalmente secos (SDTFs) a lo largo del neotrópico. Las leguminosas tienen una preferencia ecológica fuerte por los bosques tropicales estacionalmente secos (SDTFs), y la cuenca del Caribe está bien cubierta por este tipo de bosque. El análisis molecular de tasa variable sugiere que la mayoría de los linajes de leguminosas de las islas tienen edades mucho menores que 30 millones de años. De este modo, los eventos históricos singulares que invocan puentes terrestres o placas continentales móviles, no necesariamente explican la diversidad y endemismo de Leguminosas del Caribe. Las Antillas Mayores son islas grandes localizadas relativamente cerca del continente americano. Por consiguiente, se espera que en estas islas, estén bien representados los diversos linajes continentales de leguminosas. A pesar de todo, estas islas están bastante distantes de las lagunas oceánicas, lo cual rinde en las islas grandes una dispersión algo limitada. De esta manera, los linajes de estas islas pueden especiar y diversificarse a escala de tiempo evolutivo, sin impedimento por altas tasas de inmigración desde el continente. Así, los métodos de biogeografía de la vicarianza y otros métodos filogenéticos estándar de Biogeografía Histórica tienen la probabilidad de ser sustituidos por los métodos ecológicos y de Biogeografía de las islas. Esto se debe a que los métodos de selección del modelo derivado del concepto neutral de aislamiento por distancia permitirá cuantificar los patrones de alfa y beta diversidad y detectar desviaciones de la relación positiva fuerte entre las distancias geográficas y genéticas (niche assembly) y la conservación de las preferencias ecológicas ancestrales que tienden a heredar las especies (phylogenetic niche conservatism) dentro y entre comunidades que son ensayadas para formular hipótesis sobre el papel de la Biogeografía y la Ecología en la determinación de la filogenia.

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Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Sciences and Plant PathologyMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  2. 2.Centro de Investigaciones de Medio Ambiente de Camagüey, CITMACamagüeyCuba

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