, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 137–144 | Cite as

Kadua haupuensis (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new endemic species from Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands

  • David H. Lorence
  • Warren L. Wagner
  • William G. Laidlaw


The new species Kadua haupuensis is described and illustrated from the isolated Mt. Ha’upu region of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. This new species belongs to Kadua subg. Kadua sect. Wiegmannia. It is characterized by a subdioecious (leaky dioecious) breeding system and appears most closely related to another apparently dioecious species endemic to Kaua’i, Kadua flynnii, with which it is compared. Although the only original wild population is critically endangered and may possibly be extinct, this new species has been successfully propagated and is currently secure in cultivation.

Key Words

Endemic Kadua Kaua’i Hawaiian Islands Rubiaceae subdioecious 



Our sincere thanks go to Kenneth R. Wood who made the original field collections and pointed out the distinctiveness of this species as well as providing the map, and Robert Nishek who carefully grew and tended the plants in the NTBG nursery. The assistance of the NTBG “Na Lima Kokua” volunteers in the experimental work of WGL, alluded to in this paper, is gratefully acknowledged. Stephen G. Weller provided insightful discussions of breeding systems. The illustration was skillfully drawn by Alice Tangerini of the Smithsonian Institution. We thank Rae Matthews and Mel Gabel for formatting the figures and Marjorie Knowles and Harold Robinson of the Smithsonian Institution for preparing the SEM seed images. Our reviewers Harold Robinson and Edward Terrell provided most helpful suggestions for improving the manuscript. The contribution by WLW to this study was partially supported by the Smithsonian Research Opportunities Fund and while appointed as McBryde Chair at the National Tropical Botanical Garden.

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Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David H. Lorence
    • 1
  • Warren L. Wagner
    • 2
  • William G. Laidlaw
    • 1
  1. 1.National Tropical Botanical GardenKalaheoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Botany, MRC-166Smithsonian InstitutionWashingtonUSA

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