Kew Bulletin

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 293–329 | Cite as

A revision of the genus Gmelina (Lamiaceae)

Article

Summary

A revision of the genus Gmelina L. (Lamiaceae) is presented with a summary of its taxonomic history, keys, full descriptions, distribution maps, conservation assessments, ecological information and ethno-botanical notes. For the New Caledonia species no descriptions and distribution maps are given as they have been provided in an earlier publication. In this treatment, 31 species are recognised, 18 names are placed into synonymy for the first time, five are lectotypified, one is neotypified (G. racemosa (Lour.) Merr.) and seven names are excluded from the genus. Two varieties (G. palawensis var. palawensis and G. palawensis var. celebica) are raised to subspecies level. Four new species are described: G. australis de Kok, G. basifilum de Kok, G. hollrungii de Kok and G. peltata de Kok.

Key Words

distribution taxonomy 

References

  1. Adanson, M. (1763). Familles des Plantes. Paris.Google Scholar
  2. Amman, J. (1739). Stirpium rariorum in Imperio rutheno sponte provenientium icones et descriptiones. Petropoli.Google Scholar
  3. Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1929). The Verbenaceae of British Papua collected for the Arnold Arboretum by L. J. Brass. J. Arnold Arbor. 10: 69 – 75.Google Scholar
  4. ____ (1935). Notes on some of the Ebenaceae and Verbenaceae of Solomon Islands collected on the Arnold Arboretum expedition, 1930 – 1932. J. Arnold Arbor. 16: 68 – 75.Google Scholar
  5. Beentje, H. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
  6. Bentham, G. (1861). Flora Hongkongensis. Reeve, London.Google Scholar
  7. ____ (1870). Flora Australiensis Vol. 5. Reeve, London.Google Scholar
  8. Blanco, F. M. (1837). Flora de Filipinas. Manila.Google Scholar
  9. Blume, C. L. (1826). Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsch Indië 14: 751 – 850. Batavia.Google Scholar
  10. Bramley, G. L. C., Go, R. & Kok, de R. P. J. (2011). Lamiaceae. Tree flora of Sabah and Sarawak. FRIM, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  11. ____ & Kok, de R. P. J. (in press). Lamiaceae. Flora of Peninsular Malaysia. FRIM, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  12. Briquet, J. (1895). Verbenaceae. In: A. Engler & K. Prantl (eds), Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Teil 4, Abt. 3a: 132 – 182. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, R. (1810). Prodromus floræ Novæ Hollandiæ et Insulæ Van-Diemen. Taylor et socii, London.Google Scholar
  14. Burck, W. (1891). Beitraege zur Kenntniss der Myrmecophilen Pflanzen und der Bedeutung der extranuptialen nectarien. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 10: 75 – 144.Google Scholar
  15. Burkill, I. H. (1966). A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. 2nd ed. Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  16. Burman, N. L. (1768). Flora Indica. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  17. Cantino, P. (1990). The phylogenetic significance of stomata and trichomes in the Labiatae and Verbenaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 71: 323 – 370.Google Scholar
  18. Chamisso, de A. (1832). De Plantis in expeditione Roman Zoffiana, Verbenaceae. Linnaea 7: 105 – 128.Google Scholar
  19. Chinh, N. N., Chung, C. T., Cân, V. V., Dũng, N. X., Dũng, V. V., Đào, N. K., Họp, T., Oanh, T. T., Quỳnh, N. B. & Thìn, N. N. (1996). Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi.Google Scholar
  20. Christmann, G. F. (1777). Pflanzensystem Vol. 2. Nürnberg.Google Scholar
  21. Clarke, C. B. (1885). Verbenaceae. In: J. D. Hooker, Flora of British India. 4: 560 – 604. Reeve, Ashford, Kent.Google Scholar
  22. Däniker, A. U. (1933). Ergebnisse der Reise von Dr. A.U. Däniker nach Neu- Caledonien und den Loyalty-Inseln (1924/6). 4 Katalog der Pteridophyta und Embryophyta siphonogama, V Teil. Viert. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 78, Beibl. 19: 397 – 494.Google Scholar
  23. Don, D. (1825). Prodromus Florae Nepalensis. Gale, London.Google Scholar
  24. Dop, M. P. (1914). Contibution à l’étude des Verbénacées asiatiques. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 61: 316 – 323.Google Scholar
  25. ____ (1933). Les Gmelina arborescents de l’Indochine. Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 13: 893 – 897.Google Scholar
  26. Dvorak, W. S. (2004). World view of Gmelina arborea: opportunities and challenges. New Forest 28: 111 – 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fletcher, H. R. (1938a). The Siamese Verbenaceae. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew: 401 – 445.Google Scholar
  28. ____ (1938b). Contributions to the Flora of Siam, additamentum XLIX. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew: 199 – 209.Google Scholar
  29. Francis, W. D. (1951). Australian Rain Forest Trees. Forestry and Timber Bureau, Sydney.Google Scholar
  30. Gaertner, J. (1791). De fructibus et seminibus plantarum Vol. 2. Stuttgard.Google Scholar
  31. Greaves, A. (1981). Forestry Abstract, Gmelina Arborea. Commonwealth Forestry Bureau 42: 237 – 258.Google Scholar
  32. Guillaumin, A. (1952). Contributions a la Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris II, 23: 537 – 540.Google Scholar
  33. Haines, H. H. (1910). A Forest Flora of Chota Nagpur. Calcutta.Google Scholar
  34. Hallier, H. G. (1918). Die Botanischen Ergebnisse der Elbertschen Sunda-Expedition des Frankfurter vereins für Geographie und Statistik, III. Meded. Rijks-Herb. 37: 1 – 92.Google Scholar
  35. Harley, R. M., Atkins, S., Budantsev, A. L., Cantino, P. D., Conn, B. J., Grayer, R., Harley, M. M., de Kok, R. P. J., Krestovskaja, T., Morales, R., Paton, A. J., Ryding, O. & Upson, T. (2004). Labiatae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants Vol. 7, pp. 167 – 275. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  36. Heyne, K. (1917). De nuttige planten van Indonesië, 4e dee, Ruygrok & Co., Batavia.Google Scholar
  37. ____ (1950). De nuttige planten van Indonesië, 3rd ed., van Hoeve, ’s-Gravenhage/Bandung.Google Scholar
  38. Hill, W. (1862). Catalogue of the natural and industrial products of Queensland, Specimens of woods indigenous to Queensland. International Exhibition 1862, London.Google Scholar
  39. Hooker, W. J. (1848). Gmelina rheedii. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 4: t. 4395.Google Scholar
  40. IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1 IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.Google Scholar
  41. Kochummen, K. M. (1978). Verbenaceae. In: F. S. P. Ng (ed.), Tree Flora of Malaya Vol. 3, pp. 297 – 313. Longman, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  42. de Kok, R. P. J. (2007). The genus Vitex (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the South Pacific Islands. Kew Bull. 62: 587 – 603.Google Scholar
  43. ____ (2008). The genus Vitex (Labiatae) in the Flora Malesiana region, excluding New Guinea. Kew Bull. 63: 17 – 40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. ____, Rusea, G. & Latiff, A. (2009). The genus Teijsmanniodendron Koord. (Lamiaceae). Kew Bull. 64: 587 – 625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. ____ (in press). The genus Premna L. (Lamiaceae) in the Flora Malesiana area. Kew Bull. Google Scholar
  46. Kuntze, O. (1891). Revisio generum plantarum Vol. 2. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  47. Kurz, S. (1870). On some new or imperfectly known Indian plants. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 39: 61 – 91.Google Scholar
  48. Lam, H. J. (1919). The Verbenaceae of the Malayan Archipelago. De Waal, Groningen.Google Scholar
  49. ____ & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1921). Revision of the Verbenaceae of the Dutch East-Indies and surrounding countries. Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, série III, 3: 1 – 116 & I – III.Google Scholar
  50. Lane-Poole, C. E. (1925). The forest resources of the territories of Papua and New Guinea. Government printer, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  51. Link, J. H. F. (1821 – 1822). Enumeratio plantarum Horti regii botanici berolinensis altera. Berolini.Google Scholar
  52. Linnaeus, Carl von (1753). Species plantarum. Holmiae.Google Scholar
  53. Loureiro, João de (1790). Flora cochinchinensis 2. Ulyssipone.Google Scholar
  54. Mabberley, D. J (1998). On Neorapinia (Vitex sensu lato, Labiatae-Viticoideae). Telopea 7: 313 – 317.Google Scholar
  55. ____ (2008). Mabberley’s Plant Book, 3rd ed. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  56. ____ & de Kok, R. P. J. (2004). Labiatae. In: P. Morat & H. S. Mackee, Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances Vol. 25. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris.Google Scholar
  57. Mangenot, S. & Mangenot, G. (1962). Enquête sur les nombres chromosomiques dans une collection d’espèces tropicales. Rev. Cytol. Biol. Veg. 25: 411 – 447.Google Scholar
  58. McNeill, J., Barrie, F. R., Burdet, H. M., Demoulin, V., Hawksworth, D. L., Marhold, K., Nicolson, D. H., Prado, J., Silva, P. C., Skog, J. E., Wiersema, J. H. & Turland, N. J. (2006). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Gantner, Liechtenstein.Google Scholar
  59. Merrill, E. D. (1912). A flora of Manila. Bureau of Science, Manila.Google Scholar
  60. ____ (1917). An interpretation of Rumphius’s Herbarium Amboinense. Bureau of Science, Manila.Google Scholar
  61. ____ (1918). Species Blancoanae. Bureau of Science, Manila.Google Scholar
  62. ____ (1935). A Commentary on Loureiro’s ‘Flora Cochinchinensis’. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 24: 1 – 445.Google Scholar
  63. Mohamad, A. B. & Ng, F. S. P. (1982). Influence of light on germination of Pinus caribaea, Gmelina arborea, Sapium baccatum and Vitex pinnata. Malaysian Forester 45: 62 – 68.Google Scholar
  64. Moldenke, H. N. (1940). Novelties in the Avicenniaceae and Verbenaceae. Phytologia 1: 409 – 432.Google Scholar
  65. ____ (1951). Notes on new and noteworthy plants, XII. Phytologia 3: 406 – 448.Google Scholar
  66. ____ (1952). Notes on new and noteworthy plants, XIII. Phytologia 4: 41 – 65.Google Scholar
  67. ____ (1953). Notes on new and noteworthy plants, XV. Phytologia 4: 173 – 184.Google Scholar
  68. ____ (1955). Notes on new and noteworthy plants, XX. Phytologia 5: 225 – 230.Google Scholar
  69. ____ (1958). Notes on new and noteworthy plants, XXII. Phytologia 6: 322 – 332.Google Scholar
  70. ____ (1961). Notes on new and noteworthy plants, XXVIII. Phytologia 8: 14 – 15.Google Scholar
  71. ____ (1969). Five novelties in the Verbenaceae. Phytologia 18: 70 – 72.Google Scholar
  72. ____ (1970). Futher new combinations and varieties of Verbenaceae. Phytologia 19: 435.Google Scholar
  73. ____ (1975). Notes on new and noteworthy plants, LXXXII. Phytologia 32: 46 – 48.Google Scholar
  74. ____ (1984a). Notes on new and noteworthy plants, CLXXII. Phytologia 55: 41 – 43.Google Scholar
  75. ____ (1984b). Notes on new and noteworthy plants, CLXXIV. Phytologia 55: 232 – 234.Google Scholar
  76. ____ (1984c). Notes on the genus Gmelina (Verbenaceae). Phytologia 55: 308 – 342.Google Scholar
  77. ____ (1984d). Additional notes on the genus Gmelina, I. Phytologia 55: 424 – 442.Google Scholar
  78. ____ (1984e). Additional notes on the genus Gmelina, II. Phytologia 55: 460 – 499.Google Scholar
  79. ____ (1984f). Additional notes on the genus Gmelina, III. Phytologia 56: 32 – 54.Google Scholar
  80. ____ (1984g). Additional notes on the genus Gmelina, IV. Phytologia 56: 102 – 126.Google Scholar
  81. ____ (1984h). Additional notes on the genus Gmelina, V. Phytologia 56: 154 – 182.Google Scholar
  82. ____ & Moldenke, A. L. (1983). Verbenaceae. In: M. D. Dassanayake &. Fosberg, F. R., A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 4: 389 – 401.Google Scholar
  83. Mueller, F. von (1862). Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 3. Melbourne.Google Scholar
  84. ____ (1864). Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 4. Melbourne.Google Scholar
  85. ____ (1865). Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 5. MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  86. Munir, A. A (1984). A taxonomic revision of the genus Gmelina L. (Verbenaceae) in Australia. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 7: 91 – 116.Google Scholar
  87. Naves, A. (1877). Flora de Filipinas. Manila.Google Scholar
  88. Ng, F. S. P. (1992). Manual of forest fruits, seeds and seedlings, Malayan Forest Record 34. FRIM, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  89. Oliver, O. (1889). Gmelina chinensis, Benth. Hooker's Icon. Pl. 19: t. 1874.Google Scholar
  90. Persoon, C. H. (1806). Synopsis plantarum. Paris.Google Scholar
  91. Plukenet, L. (1691). Phytographia. Londini.Google Scholar
  92. Rajendran, A. & Daniel, P. (2002). The Indian Verbenaceae. Shiva Press, Dehra Dun.Google Scholar
  93. Rees, A. (1810). The Cyclopædia Vol. 16. London.Google Scholar
  94. Rendle, A. B., Baker, E. G. & Moore, S. (1921). A systematic account of the plants collected in New Caledonia and the Isle of Pines by Prof. R. H. Compton, M. A. in 1914. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 45: 245 – 434.Google Scholar
  95. Rheede tot Drakenstein, H. A. van (1678 – 1693). Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  96. Ridley, H. N. (1909). Plants of Prince of Wales Island. J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 53: 49 – 127.Google Scholar
  97. Roth, A. W. (1821). Novae plantarum species praesert im Indiae orientalis. Halberstadii.Google Scholar
  98. Roxburgh, W. (1799 – 1805). Plants of the Coast of Coromandel Vol. 2. London.Google Scholar
  99. ____ (1814). Hortus Bengalensis. Serampore.Google Scholar
  100. ____ (1832). Flora Indica 3. Serampore.Google Scholar
  101. Rumphius, G. E. (1750). Herbarium amboinense. Amstelædam.Google Scholar
  102. Schauer, J. C. (1847). Verbenaceae. In: A. de Candolle, Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 11: 522 – 700.Google Scholar
  103. Scheffer, H. C. C. (1876). Énumeration des Plantes de la Nouvelle-Guinée, avec déscription des espèces nouvelles. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 1: 1 – 60.Google Scholar
  104. Schumann, K. M. & Hollrung, M. (1889). Die Flora van Kaiser Wilhelms Lands. Asher & Co., Berlin.Google Scholar
  105. Schreber, J. C. D. von (1789). Genera plantarum, ed. 8. Frankfurt.Google Scholar
  106. Seemann, B. (1862). Viti: an account of a government mission to the Vitian or Fijian Islands, in the years 1860 – 61. Macmillan, Cambridge and London.Google Scholar
  107. ____ (1865). On Faradaya, a new Australian genus. J. Bot. 3: 256 – 259.Google Scholar
  108. ____ (1866). Flora vitiensis. Reeve, London.Google Scholar
  109. Shou-liang, C. & Gilbert, M. G. (1994). Verbenaceae. Flora of China. Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Loius.Google Scholar
  110. Sleumer, H. (1954). Flacourtiaceae. Flora Malesiana 5: 1 – 106.Google Scholar
  111. Sloane, H. (1725). A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and Jamaica Vol. 2. London.Google Scholar
  112. Smith, A. C. (1978). A Precursor to a new flora of Fiji. Allertonia 1: 331 – 414.Google Scholar
  113. ____ (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova Vol. 5. National Tropical Botanic Gardens, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  114. Smith, W. W. (1916). Specierum novarum in herbario Horti Regii Edinburgensis cognitarum CLI-CCL. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 9: 71 – 144.Google Scholar
  115. Stapf, O. (1895). Gmelina uniflora Stapf. Hooker's Icon Pl. 24: t. 2391.Google Scholar
  116. Thiers, B. [2011, continuously updated]. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/
  117. Vũ Xuân Phuöng (2007). Flora of Vietnam 6. Science and Techinks Publishing House, Hanoi.Google Scholar
  118. Wallich, N. (1828 – 1849). A numerical list of dried plants in the East India Company's Museum collected under the superintendence of Dr Wallich of the Company's botanic garden at Calcutta.Google Scholar
  119. Walpers, W. G. (1844 – 1848). Repertorium Botanices Systematicae Vol. 4. Lipsiae.Google Scholar
  120. Willdenow, K. L. (1802). Species Plantarum, 4th ed. BerlinGoogle Scholar
  121. White, C. T. & Francis, W. D. (1927). Plants collected in Papua by C. E. Lane-Poole. Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 38: 225 – 257.Google Scholar
  122. Yamazaki, T. (1985). Scrophulariacées. In: J-F. Leroy, Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-nam, vol 21. Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.Google Scholar
  123. Yao, K. (1982). Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 65 (1): 1 – 229.Google Scholar
  124. Zhengyi, W. & Raven, P. H. (1988). Flora of China, illustrations Vol. 17. Science Press, Beijing/ Missouri Botanical Gardens Press, St. Louis.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal Botanic Gardens, KewRichmondUK

Personalised recommendations