Kew Bulletin

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 3–20 | Cite as

Elliptic Fourier Analysis of leaf outline shape in forest fragment populations of Anthurium sinuatum and A. pentaphyllum (Araceae) from Northeast Brazil

  • I. M. Andrade
  • S. J. MayoEmail author
  • D. Kirkup
  • C. Van den Berg


A field-based comparative study of leaflet outline shape in five populations of Anthurium sinuatum Benth. ex Schott from Amazonia and humid brejo forests of Ceará, Northeast Brazil, and ten populations of A. pentaphyllum (Aubl.) G. Don var. pentaphyllum from Amazonia and the Brazilian Atlantic forest is reported. 1,120 leaflets from 561 individuals in 15 populations were sampled. Using images, leaflet outlines were captured by digitisation and subjected to Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA) to produce matrices of Fourier coefficients based on 40 harmonics; lateral and central leaflets were analysed separately. Twelve shape variables, extracted from the Fourier coefficient matrices, described the leaflet outlines of 531 individuals. Between-population relationships were estimated using cluster analysis, Canonical Variates Analysis and non-parametric MANOVA. Amazonian populations showed the greatest within-population variability. In A. sinuatum the Pacatuba population was the most distinct in Ceará and the Pará population (Amazonia) was not significantly different from those at Ibiapaba and Maranguape (both Ceará). In A. pentaphyllum 80% of population pairs were significantly different and three significantly different groups of populations were observed. Although the populations of A. pentaphyllum displayed considerable variation, the morphological patterns did not correlate with previously reported molecular ones. The two species were found to be slightly but significantly different on leaf outline data.


Atlantic forest brejo forest Ceará morphological variability morphometrics population differentiation species differentiation 



We are most grateful to the following organisations and persons for their essential help: FUNCAP (Fundação Cearense de Amparo à Pesquisa), FAPESB (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia), WWF Brasil, Kew Latin America Research Fellowships Programme (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), Margaret Mee Fellowships Programme (Fundação Botânica Margaret Mee – Rio de Janeiro, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), Ministério do Meio Ambiente (IBAMA, permit number 001/2004, 042/04), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científica e Tecnológica (CNPq, MCT permit number, 168/01), Dr Ana Maria Giulietti, Dr Robyn Cowan, Anna Haigh, Dr Jean-Jacques de Granville and the staff of the CAY herbarium in French Guiana, Bertrand Goguillon and the staff of IRD (French Guiana) for permission to collect, Dr Denis Barabé, Thales Alves Ribeiro, Sr José Teodoro Soares, Rector of the Universidade Estadual do Vale do Acaraú (UVA), Sobral, Ceará, Brazil, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Bahia, Brazil.


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Copyright information

© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. M. Andrade
    • 1
  • S. J. Mayo
    • 2
    Email author
  • D. Kirkup
    • 2
  • C. Van den Berg
    • 1
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Botânica, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Departamento de Ciências BiológicasFeira de SantanaBrazil
  2. 2.Herbarium, Library, Art and Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, KewRichmondUK

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