Probiotics and prebiotics potential for the care of skin, female urogenital tract, and respiratory tract

  • Mariela BustamanteEmail author
  • B. Dave Oomah
  • Wanderley P. Oliveira
  • César Burgos-Díaz
  • Mónica Rubilar
  • Carolina Shene


The prebiotics and probiotics market is constantly growing due to the positive effects of its consumption on human health, which extends beyond the digestive system. In addition, the synbiotic products market is also expanding due to the synergistic effects between pre- and probiotics that provide additional benefits to consumers. Pre- and probiotics are being evaluated for their effectiveness to treat and prevent infectious diseases in other parts of the human body where microbial communities exist. This review examines the scientific data related to the effects of pre- and probiotics on the treatment of diseases occurring in the skin, female urogenital tract, and respiratory tract. The evidence suggests that probiotics consumption can decrease the presence of eczema in children when their mothers have consumed probiotics during pregnancy and lactation. In women, probiotics consumption can effectively prevent recurrent urinary tract infections. The consumption of synbiotic products can reduce respiratory tract infections and their duration and severity. However, the outcomes of the meta-analyses are still limited and not sufficiently conclusive to support the use of probiotics to treat infectious diseases. This is largely a result of the limited number of studies, lack of standardization of the studies, and inconsistencies between the reported results. Therefore, it is advisable that future studies consider these shortcomings and include the evaluation of the combined use of pre- and probiotics.


Probiotics Prebiotics Skin Female urogenital system Respiratory tract 



Atopic dermatitis


Aerobic vaginitis


Body mass index


Bacterial vaginosis


Dietary fiber


Diabetes mellitus




Glucomannan hydrolysates




Lower respiratory tract




Quality of life


Respiratory tract infections


Scoring Atopic Dermatitis Index


Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside


Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth


T-helper cell


Upper respiratory tract


Urinary tract infections


Vulvovaginal candidiasis


Authors’ contribution

Mariela Bustamante conceived, designed, and wrote the review. B. Dave Oomah, Wanderley P. Oliveira, César Burgos-Díaz, Mónica Rubilar, and Carolina Shene provided ideas and contributed to writing the manuscript.

Funding information

This research was supported by CONICYT through FONDECYT project 11160249.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abbott J (1995) Clinical and microscopic diagnosis of vaginal yeast infection: a prospective analysis. Ann Emerg Med 25:587–591PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Achkar JM, Fries BC (2010) Candida infections of the genitourinary tract. Clin Microbiol Rev 23:253–273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Ghazzewi FH, Tester RF (2010) Effect of konjac glucomannan hydrolysates and probiotics on the growth of the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes in vitro. Int J Cosmet Sci 32:139–142PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Anadón A, Martínez-Larrañaga MR, Caballero V et al (2010) Chapter 2, Assessment of prebiotics and probiotics: an overview. In: Watson RR, Preedy VR (eds) Bioactive foods in promoting health: probiotics and prebiotics. Elsevier Inc., Academic Press, pp 9–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonio M, Hawes S, Hillier S (1999) The identification of vaginal Lactobacillus species and the demographic and microbiologic characteristic of women colonized by these species. J Infect Dis 180:1950–1956PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bajury DM, Nashri SM, Hung PKJ et al (2017) Evaluation of potential prebiotics: a review. Food Rev Int 34:639–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrons R, Tassone D (2008) Use of Lactobacillus probiotics for bacterial genitourinary infections in women: a review. Clin Ther 30:453–468PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bateni E, Tester R, Al-Ghazzewi F et al (2013) The use of konjac glucomannan hydrolysates (GMH) to improve the health of the skin and reduce acne vulgaris. Am J Dermatol Venereol 2:10–14Google Scholar
  9. Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S et al (2012) Lactobacilli vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 172:704–712PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bermudez-Brito M, Plaza-Díaz J, Muñoz-Quezada S et al (2012) Probiotic mechanisms of action. Ann Nutr Metab 61:160–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertuccini L, Russo R, Iosi F et al (2017) Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus on bacterial vaginal pathogens. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 30:163–167PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bik EM, Bir SW, Bustamante JP et al (2017) A new sequencing-based women’s health assay combining self-sampling, HPV detection and genotyping, STI detection, and vaginal microbiome analysis. bioRxiv.
  13. Blanchet-Réthoré S, Bourdès V, Mercenier A et al (2017) Effect of a lotion containing the heat-treated probiotic strain. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 10:249–257PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bogaert D, Keijser B, Huse S et al (2011) Variability and diversity of nasopharyngeal microbiota in children: a metagenomic analysis. PLoS ONE 6:e17035PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boguniewicz M, Leung DYM (2011) Atopic dermatitis: a disease of altered skin barrier and immune dysregulation. Immunol Rev 242:233–246PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bosch AATM, Levin E, van Houten MA et al (2016) Development of upper respiratory tract microbiota in infancy is affected by mode of delivery. EBioMedicine 9:336–345PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Braga VL, Rocha LPDS, Bernardo DD et al (2017) What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about probiotics as preventive interventions? Sao Paulo Med J 135:578–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cabana MD, McKean M, Caughey AB et al (2017) Early probiotic supplementation for eczema and asthma prevention: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 140:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campos D, Betalleluz-Pallardel I, Chirinos R et al (2012) Prebiotic effects of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl), a source of fructooligosaccharides and phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. Food Chem 135:1592–1599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chamlin SL, Frieden IJ, Williams ML et al (2004) Effects of atopic dermatitis on young American children and their families. Pediatrics 114:607–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Charlson ES, Diamond JM, Bittinger K et al (2012) Lung-enriched organisms and aberrant bacterial and fungal respiratory microbiota after lung transplant. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 186:536–545PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clinique (2019) Redness Solutions makeup broad spectrum SPF 15 with probiotic technology. Available at (Accessed 01 March 2019)
  23. Collins MD, Gibson GR (1999) Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. Am J Clin Nutr 69:1052S–1057SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coste I, Judlin P, Lepargmeur JP et al (2012) Safety and efficacy of an intravaginal prebiotic gel in the prevention of recurrent bacterial vaginosis: a randomized double-blind study. Obstet Gynecol Int 1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cuello-Garcia CA, Brozek JL, Fiocchi A et al (2015) Probiotics for the prevention of allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Allergy Clin Immunol 136:952–961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dahl MV (2014) A treatment strategy for rosacea. In: Zouboulis CC, Katsambas AD, Kligman AM (eds) Pathogenesis and treatment of acne and rosacea. Springer, Berlin. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Daniells S (2018) Soprole works with Tetra Pak to launch new probiotic format for children. Available at (Accessed 04 June 2018)
  28. Danq D, Zhou W, Lun ZJ et al (2013) Meta-analysis of probiotics and/or prebiotics for the prevention of eczema. J Int Med Res 41:1426–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. de Souza VMC, dos Santos EF, Sgarbieri VC (2011) The importance of prebiotics in functional foods and clinical practice. Food Nutr Sci 2:133–144Google Scholar
  30. de Vrese M, Laue C, Papazova E et al (2019) Impact of oral administration of four Lactobacillus strains on Nugent score—systematic review and meta-analysis. Benef Microbes 10:483–496PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Delwart EL (2007) Viral metagenomics. Rev Med Virol 17:115–131PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Egeberg A, Weinstock LB, Thyssen EP et al (2016) Rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders—a population-based cohort study. Br J Dermatol 176:100–106PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Eidi S, Kamali SA, Hajari Z et al (2016) Nasal and indoors fungal contamination in healthy subjects. Health Scope 5:e30033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S (2006) Probiotics for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review. J Antimicrob Chemother 58:266–272PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S (2007) Probiotics for the treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 13:657–664PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. FAO/WHO (2001) Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria, CórdobaGoogle Scholar
  37. FAO/WHO (2002) Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in Food, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United. Nations/World Health Organization, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Farage MA, Miller KW, Sobel JD (2010) Dynamics of the vaginal ecosystem—hormonal influences. Infect Dis Res Treatment 3:1–15Google Scholar
  39. Fedricks DN, Fiedler TL, Marrazzo JM (2005) Molecular identification of bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. N Engl J Med 353:1899–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Folch MH (2018) The role of prebiotics and probiotics in gastrointestinal disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 47:179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gabrielli E, Pericolini E, Ballet N et al (2018) Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic as novel anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory agent for therapy of vaginal candidiasis. Benef Microbes 9:219–230PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Garden of Life (2019) Raw probiotics™ vaginal care. Available at (Accessed 04 February 2019)
  43. Gerritsen C, Ormel G (2016) Probiotics to prevent upper respiratory tract infections. Agro Food Ind Hi Tech 27:1–4Google Scholar
  44. Gibson GR, Fuller R (2000) Aspects of in vitro and in vivo research approaches directed toward identifying probiotics and prebiotics for human use. J Nutr 130:391S–395SPubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1401–1412PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Gibson GR, Hutkins R, Sanders ME et al (2017) Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 14:491–502PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Gille C, Böer B, Marschal M et al (2016) Effect of probiotics on vaginal health in pregnancy. EFFPRO, a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 215:608.e1–608.e7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gogineni VK, Morrow LE, Malesker MA (2013) Probiotics: mechanisms of action and clinical applications. J Probiotics Health 1:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gomez E, Touhy KM, Gibson GR et al (2010) In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of Agave fructans. J Appl Microbiol 108:2114–2121PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Grice EA (2014) The skin microbiome: potential for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cutaneous disease. Semin Cutan Med Surg 33:98–103PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Grice EA, Segre JA (2011) The skin microbiome. Nat Rev Microbiol 9:244–253PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grin PM, Kowalewska PM, Alhazzan W et al (2013) Lactobacillus for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in women: meta-analysis. Can J Urol Int 20:6607–6614Google Scholar
  53. Handalishy II, Behery MA, Elkhouly M et al (2014) Comparative study between probiotic vaginal tampons and oral metronidazole in treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Al Azhar Assiut Med J 12(Suppl 2):185–203Google Scholar
  54. Hao Q, Lu Z, Dong BR et al (2011) Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD006895Google Scholar
  55. Hemmerling A, Harrison W, Schroeder A et al (2010) Phase 2a study assessing colonization efficiency, safety, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 in women with bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Dis 37:745–750PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Holland KT, Bojar RA (2002) Cosmetics: what is their influence on the skin microflora? Am J Clin Dermatol 3:445–449PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Huang MCJ, Tang J (2015) Probiotics in personal care products. Microbiology Discovery 3:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Innéov (2019) Innéov Bronzer+. Available at (Accessed 01 March 2019)
  59. Jgl (2018a) Lactogyn®. Jadran–Galenski Laboratorij d.d. Available at (Accessed 10 June 2018)
  60. Jgl (2018b) Lactogyn® vaginalne kapsule. Jadran–Galenski Laboratorij d.d. Available at (Accessed 10 June 2018)
  61. Jung GW, Tse JE, Guiha I et al (2013) Prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of an acne treatment regimen with and without a probiotic supplement and minocycline in subjects with mild to moderate acne. J Cutan Med Surg 17:114–122PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Kang BS, Seo JG, Lee GS et al (2009) Antimicrobial activity of Enterocins from Enterococcus faecalis SL-5 against Propionibacterium acnes, the causative agent in acne vulgaris, and its therapeutic effect. J Microbiol 47:101–109PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Kechagia M, Basoulis D, Konstantopoulou S et al (2013) Health benefits of probiotics: a review. ISRN Nutr 2013:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kim J, Ko Y, Park YK et al (2010) Dietary effect of lactoferrin-enriched fermented milk on skin surface lipid and clinical improvement of acne vulgaris. Nutrition 26:902–909PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. King S, Glanville J, Sanders ME et al (2014) Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 112:41–54PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Köhler GA, Assefa S, Reid G (2012) Probiotic interference of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 with the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2012:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Krutmann J (2009) Pre- and probiotics for human skin. J Dermatol Sci 54:1–5PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Lau ASY, Yanagisawa N, Hor YY et al (2018) Bifidobacterium longum BB536 alleviated upper respiratory illnesses and modulated gut microbiota profiles in Malaysian pre-school children. Benef Microbes 9:61–70PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Laue C, Papazova E, Liesegang A et al (2018) Effect of a yoghurt drink containing Lactobacillus strains on bacterial vaginosis in women—a double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical pilot trial. Benef Microbes 9:35–50PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Laursen RP, Hojsak I (2018) Probiotics for respiratory tract infections in children attending day care centers-a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr 177:979–994PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Laursen RP, Larnkjær A, Ritz C et al (2017) Probiotics and child care absence due to infections: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 140:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lee GR, Maarouf M, Hendricks AJ et al (2019) Topical probiotics: the unknowns behind their rising popularity. Dermatol Online J 25:5Google Scholar
  73. Liu F, Li P, Chen M et al (2017) Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) increase Bifidobacterium but reduce butyrate producing bacteria with adverse glycemic metabolism in healthy young population. Sci Rep 7:11789PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Livengood CH 3rd, Thomason JL, Hill GB (1990) Bacterial vaginosis: diagnostic and pathogenetic findings during topical clindamycin therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 163:515–520PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Lopes EG, Moreira DA, Gullón P et al (2016) Topical application of probiotics in skin: adhesion, antimicrobial and antibiofilm in vitro assays. J Appl Microbiol 122:450–446PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. López-Velázquez G, Parra-Ortiz M, De la Mora-De la Mora I et al (2015) Effects of fructans from Mexican Agave in newborns fed with infant formula: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients 7:8939–8951PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Luoto R, Ruuskanen O, Waris M et al (2014) Prebiotic and probiotic supplementation prevents rhinovirus infections in preterm infants: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 133:405–413PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Ma B, Forney LJ, Ravel J (2012) Vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and disease. Annu Rev Microbiol 66:371–389PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Man WH, de Steenhuijsen Piters WAA, Bogaert D (2017) The microbiota of the respiratory tract: gatekeeper to respiratory health. Nat Rev Microbiol 15:259–270PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Mansfield JA, Bergin SW, Cooper JR et al (2014) Comparative probiotic strain efficacy in the prevention of eczema in infants and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mil Med 179:580–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Manzhalii E, Hornuss D, Stremmel W (2016) Intestinal-borne dermatoses significantly improved by oral application of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. World J Gastroenterol 22:5415–5421PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Markowiak P, Śliżewska K (2017) Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. Nutrients.
  83. Menard JP (2011) Antibacterial treatment of bacterial vaginosis: current and emerging therapies. Int J Womens Health 3:295–305PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Menayang A (2018) DSM and Prenexus Health market sugar cane-derived prebiotic developed to selectively feed “friendly” microbes. Available at (Accessed 04 June 2018)
  85. Michalickova D, Minic R, Dikic N et al (2016) Lactobacillus helveticus Lafti L10® supplementation reduces respiratory infection duration in a cohort of elite athletes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41:782–789PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Muizzuddin N, Maher W, Sullivan M et al (2012) Physiological effect of a probiotic on skin. J Cosmet Sci 63:385–395PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Murillo N, Raoult D (2013) Skin microbiota: overview and role in the skin diseases acne vulgaris and rosacea. Future Microbiol 8:209–222PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Nagpal R, Kumar A, Kumar M et al (2012) Probiotics, their health benefits and applications for developing healthier foods: a review. FEMS Microbiol Lett 334:1–15PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Nekutli (2018) Fibra orgánica soluble de agave, Metlin y Metlos. Available at (Accessed 01 May 2018)
  90. Pandey KR, Naik SR, Vakil BV (2015) Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics—a review. J Food Sci Technol 52:7577–7587PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Parodi A, Paolino S, Greco A et al (2008) Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Rosacea: clinical effectiveness of its eradication. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:759–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pineiro M, Asp NG, Reid G et al (2008) FAO technical meeting on prebiotics. J Clin Gastroenterol 42:S156–S159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Platsidaki E, Dessinioti C (2018) Recent advances in understanding Propionibacterium acnes (Cutibacterium acnes) in acne [version 1; referees: 2 approved]. F1000Research. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Prado FC, Parada JL, Pandey A et al (2008) Trends in non-dairy probiotic beverages. Food Res Int 41:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Prakoeswa CRS, Herwanto N, Prameswari R et al (2017) Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 supplementation reduced SCORAD in children with atopic dermatitis. Benef Microbes 8:833–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Prince J (2018a) AIDP Now exclusive distributor for Neo Cremar prebiotic oligosaccharide ingredients. Available at (Accessed 25 June 2018)
  97. Prince J (2018b) Lallemand probiotic gains sports nutrition, active nutrition claims in Canada. Available at (Accessed 01 June 2018)
  98. Rahman S, Collins M, Williams C et al (2011) The pathology and immunology of atopic dermatitis. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 10:486–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rahmati Roudsari M, Karimi R, Mortazavian AM (2013) Health effects of probiotics on the skin. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 55:1219–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Reid G, Bruce AW (2003) Urogenital infections in women: can probiotics help? Postgrad Med J 79:428–432PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reid G, Burton J (2002) Use of Lactobacillus to prevent infection by pathogenic bacteria. Microb Infect 4:319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reid G, Younes JA, Van der Mei HC et al (2011) Microbiota restoration: natural and supplemented recovery of human microbial communities. Nat Rev Microbiol 9:27–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Roth RR, James WD (1988) Microbial ecology of the skin. Annu Rev Microbiol 42:441–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Salarkia N, Ghadamli L, Zaeri F et al (2013) Effects of probiotic yogurt on performance, respiratory and digestive systems of young adult female endurance swimmers: a randomized controlled trial. Med J Islam Repub Iran 27:141–146PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V et al (2014) Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. Br J Nutr 111:1507–1519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sanders ME (2008) Probiotics: definitions, sources, selections, and uses. Clin Infect Dis 46:S58–S61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Scharschmidt TC, Fischbach MA (2013) What lives on our skin: ecology, genomics and therapeutic opportunities of the skin microbiome. Drug Discov Today. Dis Mech 10:e83–e89Google Scholar
  108. Schenck LP, Surette MG, Bowdish DME (2016) Composition and immunological significance of the upper respiratory tract microbiota. FEBS Lett 590:3705–3720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schultz H (2018) AIDP aims new prebiotic toward novel beauty-from-within positioning. Available at (Accessed 04 June 2018)
  110. Schwenger EM, Tejani AM, Loewen PS (2015) Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 12:CD008772Google Scholar
  111. Sekhon BS, Jairath S (2010) Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics: an overview. J Pharm Educ Res 1:13–36Google Scholar
  112. Seroyal (2019) HLC Fit for School. Available at (Accessed 01 March 2019)
  113. Shim YY, Gui B, Wang Y et al (2015) Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil processing and selected products. Trends Food Sci Technol 43:162–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Silab (2018a) Sensiline®. Available at (Accessed 01 May 2018)
  115. Silab (2018b) Sensiline® Bio. Avaiable at (Accessed 01 May 2018)
  116. Šmid A, Strniša L, Bajc K et al (2016) Randomized clinical trial: The effect of fermented milk with the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5® and Bifidobacterium BB-12® and Beneo dietary fibres on health-related quality of life and the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. J Funct Foods 24:549–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Smith TJ, Rigassio-Radler D, Denmark R et al (2013) Effect of Lactobaillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections. Br J Nutr 109:1999–2007PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Stapleton AE, Au-Yeung M, Hooton TM et al (2011) Randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus probiotic given intravaginally for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection. Clin Infect Dis 52:1212–1217PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Suzuki N, Yoneda M, Tanake K et al (2014) Lactobacillus salivarius WB21-containing tablets for the treatment of oral malodor: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 117:462–470PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Tajadadi-Ebrahimi M, Bahmani F, Shakeri H et al (2014) Effects of daily consumption of synbiotic bread on insulin metabolism and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein among diabetic patients: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ann Nutr Metab 65:34–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tapiovaara L, Pitkaranta A, Korpela R (2016) Probiotics and the upper respiratory tract—a review. Pediatric Infect Dis.
  122. TKS (2018) Intimique™ Femme. The intimate ally for uro-genital infections. Available at (Accessed 10 May 2018)
  123. Toyoda M, Morohashi M (2001) Pathogenesis of acne. Med Electron Microsc 34:29–40PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. van den Broek MFL, De Boeck I, Claes IJJ et al (2018) Multifactorial inhibition of lactobacilli against the respiratory tract pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis. Benef Microbes 9:429–439PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. van der Aa LB, Heymans HS, van Aalderen WM et al (2010) Effect of a new synbiotic mixture on atopic dermatitis in infants: a randomized-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy 40:795–804PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. van Woerden HC, Gregory C, Brown R et al (2013) Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study. BMC Infec Dis 13:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Verdenelli MC, Cecchini C, Coman MM et al (2016) Impact of probiotic SYNBIO® administered by vaginal suppositories in promoting vaginal health of apparently healthy women. Curr Microbiol 73:483–490PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Vujic G, Knez AJ, Stefanivc VD et al (2013) Efficacy of orally applied probiotic capsules for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 168:75–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Waigankar SS, Patel V (2011) Role of probiotics in urogenital healthcare. J Midlife Health 2:5–10PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Wang Y, Li X, Ge T et al (2016) Probiotics for prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections in children. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine 95:e4509PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Watelet JB, Van Cauwenberge P (1999) Applied anatomy and physiology of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Allergy 54:14–25PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Watts AM, West NP, Smith PK et al (2016) Probiotics and allergic rhinitis: a Simon Two-Stage Design to determine effectiveness. J Altern Complement Med 22:1007–1012PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Webster GF, Leyden JJ, Tsai CC et al (1980) Polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysosomal release in response to Propionibacterium acnes in vitro and its enhancement by sera from inflammatory acne patients. J Investig Dermatol 74:398–401PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Whitehouse L (2018) How do JooMo products encourage natural microbial diversity of the skin? Available at (Accessed 10 May 2018)
  135. Whyand TL, Caplin ME (2014) Review of the evidence for the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterol Pancreatol Liver Disord 1(4):1–9Google Scholar
  136. Winclove Probiotics (2018a) Prevention of early-onset eczema. Available at (Accessed 10 May 2018)
  137. Winclove Probiotics (2018b) Management of allergic symptoms. Available at (Accessed 10 May 2018)
  138. Winclove Probiotics (2018c) Prevention of (recurrent) vaginal Candida infections. Available at (Accessed 10 May 2018)
  139. Wu KG, Li TH, Peng HJ (2012) Lactobacillus salivarius plus fructo-oligosaccharide is superior to fructo-oligosaccharide alone for treating children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis: a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial of efficacy and safety. Br J Dermatol 166:129–136PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Yeşilova Y, Çalka O, Akdeniz N et al (2012) Effect of probiotics on the treatment of children with atopic dermatitis. Ann Dermatol 24:189–193PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Young JC, Chehoud C, Bittinger K et al (2015) Viral metagenomics reveal blooms of anelloviruses in the respiratory tract of lung transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 15:200–209PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Yu Y, Dunaway S, Champer J et al (2019) Changing our microbiome: probiotics in dermatology. Br J Dermatol.
  143. Zeng ZM, Liao QP, Yao C et al (2010) Directed shift of vaginal flora after topical application of sucrose gel in a phase III clinical trial: a novel treatment for bacterial vaginosis. Chin Med J 123:2051–2057PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Zhang H, Yeh C, Jin Z et al (2018) Prospective study of probiotic supplementation results in immune stimulation and improvement of upper respiratory infection rate. Synth Syst Biotechnol 3:113–120PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Food Biotechnology and Bioseparations, Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus, BIOREN and Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversidad de La FronteraTemucoChile
  2. 2.(Retired) Formerly with the National Bioproducts and Bioprocesses Program, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaSummerlandCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto/FCFRPUniversidade de São PauloRibeirão Preto—SPBrazil
  4. 4.Agriaquaculture Nutritional Genomic Center, CGNATemucoChile
  5. 5.Centre for Biotechnology and Bioengineering (CeBiB)Universidad de La FronteraTemucoChile

Personalised recommendations