Heat-killed Candida albicans augments synthetic bacterial component-induced proinflammatory cytokine production
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Candida albicans can enhance the invasion of oral epithelial cells by Porphyromonas gingivalis, although the fungus is not a periodontal pathogen. In this study, we investigated whether C. albicans augments proinflammatory cytokine production by mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells incubated with synthetic bacterial components. Mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells, mouse primary splenocytes, human THP-1 cells, and A549 cells were pretreated with or without heat-killed C. albicans (HKCA) or substitutes for C. albicans cell wall components in 96-well flat-bottomed plates. Cells were then washed and incubated with Pam3CSK4, a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligand, or lipid A, a TLR4 ligand. Culture supernatants were analyzed by ELISA for secreted IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-8. HKCA augmented TLR ligand-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by J774.1 cells, mouse splenocytes, and THP-1 cells, but not A549 cells. However, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α production induced by Pam3CSK4 or lipid A was not augmented when cells were pretreated with curdlan, a dectin-1 ligand, or mannan, a dectin-2 ligand. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with TLR ligands upregulated the production of IL-6 and TNF-α, but not MCP-1, induced by Pam3CSK4 or lipid A. The results suggest that C. albicans augments synthetic bacterial component-induced cytokine production by J774.1 cells via the TLR pathway, but not the dectin-1 or dectin-2 pathway.
This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ohu University School of Dentistry.
Compliance with ethical standards
All animals were handled and cared for according to guidelines for the proper conduct of animal experiments (Japan) published by the Science Council of Japan. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Ohu University.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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