Association between cagA, vacAi, and dupA genes of Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal pathologies in Chilean patients
In addition to the already known cagA gene, novel genetic markers have been associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) virulence: the dupA and vacAi genes. These genes might play an important role as specific markers to determine the clinical outcome of the disease, especially the vacAi gene, which has been expected to be a good marker of severe pathologies like gastric adenocarcinoma. In the present study, the association of cagA, dupA, and vacAi genes with gastroduodenal pathologies in Chilean patients was studied. One hundred and thirty-two patients positive for H. pylori were divided into two groups—non-severe and severe gastric pathologies—and investigated for the presence of cagA, dupA, and vacAi H. pylori virulence genes by PCR. The cagA gene was detected in 20/132 patients (15.2%), the vacAi1 gene was detected in 54/132 patients (40.9%), the vacAi2 gene was detected in 26/132 patients (19.7%), and the dupA gene was detected in 50/132 (37.9%) patients. Logistic regression model analysis showed that the vacAi1 isoform gene in the infected strains and the severity of the diseases outcome were highly associated, causing severe gastric damage that may lead to gastric cancer (p < 0.0001; OR = 8.75; 95% CI 3.54–21.64). Conversely, cagA (p = 0.3507; OR = 1.62; 95% CI 0.59–4.45) and vacAi2 (p = 0.0114; OR = 3.09; 95% CI 1.26–7.60) genes were not associated with damage, while the dupA gene was associated significantly with non-severe clinical outcome (p = 0.0032; OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.09–0.65). In addition, dupA gene exerts protection against severe gastric pathologies induced by vacAi1 by delaying the outcome of the disease by approximately 20 years.
KeywordsGastric Cancer Pylorus Infection cagA Malt Lymphoma Pylorus Strain
This paper was supported by Fondef D03i1105.
Compliance with ethical standards
The Ethic Committee of the Clinical Hospital “Guillermo Grant Benavente” approved the study protocol (code # 08-03-03). All patients were of first attendance to the hospital and non-previous clinical records were registered. The patients signed an informed consent form prior to acceptance in the study and were additionally asked about antibiotic consumption, previous gastric diseases, smoke inhalation, or alcoholic beverage consumption in order to exclude these factors.
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