Folia Microbiologica

, 56:431

Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile from shellfish and marine environments

  • Vincenzo Pasquale
  • Vincenza Jessica Romano
  • Maja Rupnik
  • Stefano Dumontet
  • Ivan Čižnár
  • F. Aliberti
  • F. Mauri
  • V. Saggiomo
  • Karel Krovacek
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12223-011-0068-3

Cite this article as:
Pasquale, V., Romano, V.J., Rupnik, M. et al. Folia Microbiol (2011) 56: 431. doi:10.1007/s12223-011-0068-3

Abstract

This pilot study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Clostridium difficile in marine environments and in edible shellfish. Samples of seawater, sediment, and zooplankton were collected at five sampling stations in the Gulf of Naples. Six samples of edible shellfish, furthermore, were obtained: two from mussel farms and four from wholesalers. The isolation and the characterization of C. difficile strains were carried out using selective media and molecular techniques, respectively. C. difficile was isolated from nine of the 21 samples investigated. Shellfish and zooplankton showed the highest prevalence of positive samples. No C. difficile was detected in marine sediment. Majority of the C. difficile isolates were toxin A/B positive. Six known different PCR ribotypes (003, 005, 009, 010, 056, and 066) were identified, whereas one strain may represent a new PCR ribotype. C. difficile may be present in the marine environment in Southern Italy, including shellfish and zooplankton. This study is reporting the isolation of C. difficile from zooplankton, clams, and mussels and pointing out a new possible route to exposure to C. difficile of healthy individuals in the community.

Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincenzo Pasquale
    • 1
  • Vincenza Jessica Romano
    • 1
  • Maja Rupnik
    • 2
    • 3
  • Stefano Dumontet
    • 1
  • Ivan Čižnár
    • 4
    • 5
  • F. Aliberti
    • 6
  • F. Mauri
    • 7
  • V. Saggiomo
    • 8
  • Karel Krovacek
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesParthenope UniversityNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MariborMariborSlovenia
  3. 3.Institute of Public Health MariborMariborSlovenia
  4. 4.Slovak Medical UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  5. 5.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of OstravaOstravaCzech Republic
  6. 6.Department of Biological Science, Section Physiology and HygieneFederico II University of NaplesNaplesItaly
  7. 7.Cantonal Institute of MicrobiologyBellinzonaSwitzerland
  8. 8.Stazione Zoologica “Anthon Dohrn”NaplesItaly
  9. 9.Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public HealthSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

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