Folia Microbiologica

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 225–229

Screening of Staphylococcus aureus nasal strains isolated from medical students for toxin genes

  • L. Piechowicz
  • K. Garbacz
  • K. Wiśniewska
  • M. Dąbrowska-Szponar
Article

Abstract

Three hundred twenty-one students (156 students with no clinical exposure and 165 students with clinical exposure) were screened for nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus; 20.9% of students were S. aureus nasal carriers, and 40.3% of S. aureus isolates harbored toxin genes. The most prevalent genes were tst (15.0 %) and sec (13.4 %). Isolates with multiple genes were only found among clinical students (p = 0.045). Six of 11 PFGE clones were positive for toxin genes. Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) isolates were only detected in the clinical students (4.5 %). The exposure of students to the hospital environment neither radically increased S. aureus nasal carriage, nor the frequency of clinically important toxin gene presence, but it could have influenced the positive selection of toxigenic MRSA strains.

References

  1. Bania J, Dąbrowska A, Korzekwa K, Zarczyńska A, Bystroń J (2006a) The profiles of enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus from nasal carriers. Lett Appl Microbiol 42:315–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bania J, Dąbrowska A, Różalska B, Sadowska B, Wieckowska-Szakiel M, Korzekwa K, Zarczyńska A, Bystroń J, Chrzanowska J, Molenda J (2006b) Superantigen types in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis. Folia Microbiol 51:614–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barski P, Piechowicz L, Galiński J, Kur J (1996) Rapid assay for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using multiplex PCR. Mol Cell Probes 10:471–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bischoff WE, Wallis ML, Tucker KB, Reboussin BA, Sherertz R (2004) Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in a student community: prevalence, clonal relationships and risk factors. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25:485–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohach GA, Foster TJ (2000) Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins. In: Fischetti VA, Novick RP, Ferretti JJ, Portnoy DA, Rood JI (eds) Gram positive pathogens. ASM, Washington, DC, pp 367–378Google Scholar
  6. Chambers HF (2001) The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus ? Emerg Infect Dis 7:178–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. French GL (2009) Methods for screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Clin Microbiol Infect 15:10–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Güçlü E, Yavuz T, Tokmak A, Behlçet M, Karali E (2007) Nasal carriage of pathogenic bacteria in medical students: effects of clinic exposure on prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 264:85–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holtfreter S, Grumann D, Schmudde M, Nguyen HT, Eichler P, Strommenger B, Kopron K, Kolata J, Giedrys-Kalemba S, Steinmetz I, Witte W, Bröker BM (2007) Clonal distribution of superantigen genes in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. J Clin Microbiol 45:2669–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hryniewicz W, Sulikowska A, Szczypa K, Gniadkowski M, Skoczyńska A (2001) Recommendations for susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents of selected bacterial species. Mikrobiol Med 12:3–14Google Scholar
  11. Kingdom JCP, Joyce S, Bradley FL, Jauch W, Falkiner FR (1983) Staphylococcal nasal carriage in medical students with varying clinical exposure. J Hosp Infect 4:75–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kluytmans J, van Belkum A, Verbrugh H (1997) Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks. Clin Microbiol Rev 10:505–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kondo I, Sekural S, Saral Y, Fukati S (1975) Two serotypes of exfoliatin and their distribution in staphylococcal strains isolated from patients with scalded skin syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 1:397–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. de Lencastre H, Couto I, Santos I, Melo-Cristino J, Torres-Pereira A (1994) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease in a Portuguese hospital: characterization of clonal types by a combination of DNA typing methods. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 13:64–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lina G, Piémont Y, Godail-Gamot F, Bes M, Peter MO (1999) Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 29:1128–1132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mehrotra M, Wang G, Johnson WM (2000) Multiplex PCR for detection of genes for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and methicillin resistance. J Clin Microbiol 38:1032–1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Millar BC, Loughrey A, Elborn JS, Moore JE (2007) Proposed definitions of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). J Hosp Infect 67:109–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Munckhof WJ, Nimmo GR, Schooneveldt JM, Schlebusch S, Stephens AJ, Williams G, Huygens F, Giffard P (2009) Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, including community-associated methicillin-resistant strains, in Queensland adults. Clin Microbiol Infect 15:149–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) (1994) Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests, 5th edn, Approwed standard M2-A5. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, WayneGoogle Scholar
  20. Opal SM, Johnson-Winegar AD, Gross AS (1988) Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in two immunocompetent adults caused by exfoliatin B-producing Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 26:1283–1286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Peacock SJ, Moore CE, Justice A, Kantzanou M, Story L (2002) Virulent combinations of adhesin and toxin genes in natural populations of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 70:4987–4996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Prates KA, Torres AM, Garcia LB, Ogatta SF, Cardoso CL, Tognim MC (2010) Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in university students. Braz J Infect Dis 14:316–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rackham DM, Ray SM, Franks AS, Bielak KM, Pinn TM (2010) Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in a college student athlete population. Clin J Sport Med 20:185–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rohde RE, Denham R, Brannon A (2009) Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: carriage rates and characterization of students in a Texas university. Clin Lab Sci 22:176–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Shrestha B, Pokhrel BM, Mohapatra TM (2010) Molecular epidemiology of MRSA among nasal carriers in a tertiary care hospital: first report from Nepal. J Hosp Infect 74:294–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sivaraman K, Venkataraman N, Cole AM (2009) Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and its contributing factors. Future Microbiol 4:999–1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stubbs E, Pegler M, Vickery A, Harbour C (1994) Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Australian (preclinical and clinical) medical students. J Hosp Infect 27:127–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tenover FC, Arbeit RD, Goering RV, Mickelsen PA, Murray BE (1995) Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol 33:2233–2239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. van der Mee-Marquet N, Lina G, Quentin R, Yaouanc-Lapalle H, Fievre C (2003) Staphylococcal exanthematous disease in a newborn due to a virulent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain containing the TSST-1 gene in Europe: an alert for neonatologists. J Clin Microbiol 41:4883–4884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. van Leeuwen WB, Melles DC, Alaidan A, Al-Ahdal M, Boelens HAM (2005) Host- and tissue-specific pathogenic traits of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 187:4584–4591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wenzel R, Pearl T (1995) The significance of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and the incidence of postoperative wound infection. J Hosp Infect 31:13–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wertheim HF, Melles DC, Vos MC, van Leeuwen W, van Belkum A, Verbrugh HA, Nouwen JL (2005) The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Lancet Infect Dis 5:751–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Piechowicz
    • 1
  • K. Garbacz
    • 1
  • K. Wiśniewska
    • 1
  • M. Dąbrowska-Szponar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical MicrobiologyMedical University of GdańskGdańskPoland

Personalised recommendations