Folia Microbiologica

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 176–180 | Cite as

Interactions of antibiotics and extracts of Helichrysum pedunculatum against bacteria implicated in wound infections

  • O. A. Aiyegoro
  • A. J. Afolayan
  • A. I. OkohEmail author


The effect of combinations of the crude acetone and aqueous extracts of Helichrysum pedunculatum leaves and eight antibiotics was determined by means of checkerboard and time-kill methods. In the checkerboard method, synergy of 45.8 % was observed, being independent of Gram reaction, with combinations in the aqueous extract yielding largely (18.8 %) antagonistic interactions. The time-kill assay detected synergy (45.8 %) that was also independent of Gram reaction with a potentiation of more than 3 orders of the bactericidal activity of the test antibiotics. The crude leaf extracts of H. pedunculatum could thus be considered to be potential source of a broad-spectrum antibiotic-resistance-modifying compounds.


Gatifloxacin EUCAST Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index Crude Leaf Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



fractional inhibitory concentration


multi drug resistance


minimum inhibitory concentration


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Basri D.F., Fan S.H.: The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Queercus infectoria as antibacterial agents. Ind.J.Pharm.37, 26–29 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bloom B.R., Murray C.J.L.: Tuberculosis: commentary on a reemergent killer. Science Mag.257, 1055–1064 (1992).Google Scholar
  3. Chadwick E.G., Shulman S.T., Yogev R.: Correlation of antibiotic synergy in vitro and in vivo: use of an animal model of neutropenic Gram-negative sepsis. J.Infect.Dis.154, 670–675 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cushnie T.P.T., Lamb A.J.: Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Internat.J.Antimicrob.Agents26, 343–356 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dawis M.A., Isenberg H.D., France K.A., Jekins S.G.: In vitro activity of gatifloxacin alone and in combination with cefepime, meropenem, piperacillin and gentamicin against multidrug-resistant organisms. J.Antimicrob.Chemother. 51, 1203–1211 (2003).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dilika F., Bremmer P.D., Meyer J.J.M.: Antibacterial activity of linoleic and oleic acids isolated from Helichrysum pedunculatum: a plant used during circumcision rites. Fitoterapia71, 450–452 (2000).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Edeoga H.O., Okwu D.E., Mbaebre B.O.: Phytochemical constituent of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr.J.Biotechnol.4, 685–688 (2005).Google Scholar
  8. EUCAST (European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing): Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibacterial agents by agar dilution. Clin.Microbiol.Infect.6, 509–515 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Johnson C.C.: In vitro testing: correlation between bacterial susceptibility, body fluid levels, and effectiveness of antibacterial therapy, pp. 813–834 in V. Lorain (Ed.): Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (MD, USA) 1996.Google Scholar
  10. Kamatou G.P.P., Viljoen A.M., van Vuuren S.F., van Zyl R.L.: In vitro evidence of antimicrobial synergy between Salvia chamelaeagnea and Leonotis leonurus. South Afr.J.Bot.72, 634–636 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kumar A., Schweizer H.P.: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics: active efflux and reduced uptake. Adv.Drug Deliv.Rev.57, 1486–1513 (2005).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee J.Y., Oh W.S., Ko K.S., Heo S.T., Moon C.S., Ki H.K., Kiem S., Peck K.R., Song J.H.: Synergy of arbekacin-based combinations against vancomycin hetero-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus. J.Korean Med.Sci.21, 188–192 (2006).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Levy S.B.:The Antibiotic Paradox: How Misuse of Antibiotics Destroys Their Curative Powers, 2nd ed. Perseus Books, Boston 2002.Google Scholar
  14. Mandal S., Mandal M.D., Pal N.K.: Evaluation of combination effect of ciprofloxacin and cefazolin against Salmonella enterica serovar typhi isolates by in vitro methods. Calicut Med.J.2, e2 (2004).Google Scholar
  15. Meyer J.J.M, Dilika F.: Antibacterial activity of Helichrysum pedunculatum used in circumcision rites. J.Ethnopharmacol.53, 51–54 (1996).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Nascimento G.G.F., Locatelli J., Freitas P.C., Silva G.L.: Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Brazil.J.Microbiol.31, 247–256 (2000).Google Scholar
  17. Odds F.C.: Synergy, antagonism, and what the chequerboard puts between them. J.Antimicrob.Chemother.52, 1 (2003).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Pankey G., Ashcraft D.: In vitro synergy of ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin against ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother.49, 2959–2964 (2005).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Robbers J., Speedie M., Tyler V.: Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology, pp. 1–14. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1996.Google Scholar
  20. Smith E.C.J., Williamson E.M., Wareham N., Kaatz G.W., Gibbons S.: Antibacterials and modulators of bacterial resistance from the immature cones of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana. Phytochemistry68, 210–217 (2007).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Stuart B.L., Bonnie M.: Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses. Nat.Med.10, 122–129 (2005).Google Scholar
  22. Tegos G., Stermitz F.R., Lomovskaya O., Lewis K.: Multidrug pump inhibitors uncover remarkable activity of plant antimicrobials. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother.46, 3133–3141 (2002).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Walsh F.M., Amyes S.G.: Microbiology and drug resistance mechanisms of fully resistant pathogens. Curr.Opin.Microbiol.7, 439–444 (2004).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhao W.H., Hu Z.Q., Okubo S., Hara Y., Shimamura T.: Mechanism of synergy between epigallochatechin gallate and β-lactams against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother.45, 1737–1742 (2001).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, v.v.i, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and MicrobiologyUniversity of Fort HareAliceSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of Fort HareAliceSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations