Fibers and Polymers

, Volume 20, Issue 10, pp 2025–2031 | Cite as

Transdermal Delivery of Crocin Using Bacterial Nanocellulose Membrane

  • Mustapha Abba
  • Zaharah Ibrahim
  • Chun Shiong Chong
  • Nurliyana Ahmad Zawawi
  • Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir
  • Abdul Halim Mohd Yusof
  • Saiful Izwan Abd RazakEmail author


This work reports the inclusion of crocin (an active agent of saffron) into bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) membrane for transdermal drug delivery. The BNC showed good uptake of the crocin based on the swelling studies and vibrational peaks of the FTIR spectra. Surface morphology of the crocin loaded BNC showed that the fibrous nano feature was still intact with no fiber damages. The crocin release via direct dissolution showed typical burst release. Franz diffusion test revealed stable and prolong drug permeation. Partition coefficient of the BNC-crocin via mice epidermal skin diffusion was found to be 2.44×10−4 cm−2 min−1 with the average mass flux of 0.53 cm−2 min−1. This facile method of utilizing BNC for the carrier of crocin can be useful for administrating other water soluble active compound. Thus BNC opens up choices for the delivery of crocin for medicinal purposes.


Bacterial nanocellulose Transdermal drug delivery Saffron Crocin Nanocellulose Franz diffusion 


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The authors would like to appreciate Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for supporting this study under the Collaborative Research Grant (04G51) and Research University Grant (00G98). The first author likes to acknowledge Bauchi State University Gadau, Nigeria and the TETFUND Nigeria for their timely support.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Fiber Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustapha Abba
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zaharah Ibrahim
    • 1
  • Chun Shiong Chong
    • 1
  • Nurliyana Ahmad Zawawi
    • 1
  • Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir
    • 3
  • Abdul Halim Mohd Yusof
    • 4
  • Saiful Izwan Abd Razak
    • 3
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biosciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceBauchi State UniversityGadauNigeria
  3. 3.School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  4. 4.School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  5. 5.Centre for Advanced Composite MaterialsUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia

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