The inner cavity of the hollow fiber with porosity in its fiber wall constitutes a damping airbag with slow passage of gas. The magnitude of the damping value of the airbag and its damping influencing factors need to be researched, which adds the nonlinear airbag damping to the damping of the raw materials and increases the total damping loss factor of the structure. In this paper, the hollow fiber damping materials with different hollow inside diameters, different fiber wall thicknesses, different wall porosity and different wall pore structure were prepared by adjusting and controlling the technological parameters of the hollow fiber spinning and the formula of spinning casting solution. Meanwhile, we have a comprehensive study on the relationship between the factors and performances. It was found and confirmed that the size of the airbag, the wall pore structure, the wall porosity and the wall thickness of the airbag were the most crucial parameters, which can affect the additional damping of the airbag in the hollow fiber. And the controlling method of the four key parameters was also obtained. Finally, the mechanism and effect of hollow fiber airbag damping was proved.