Zeolite Integrated Nanocellulose Films for Removal of Loose Anionic Reactive Dye by Adsorption vs. Filtration Mode during Textile Laundering
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Water stable, flexible and ecological acceptance composite films were prepared by the solvent casting process using native, dealuminated (treated with HCl to affect the surface chemistry and pore structure) and/or surface modified (coated with a cationic surfactant PDADM of different molecular weights) H-ZSM-5 type zeolite of different shapes (spherical vs. rod) and Si/Al ratios (P26 vs. P371) as adsorbents and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as a networking matrix (in a weight ratio of 4:1). The films were tested for removal of the black anionic reactive dye with the highest bleeding effect at the first rinsing cycle of textile laundering. The effects of zeolite structure and surface chemistry on films dye’ removal kinetics from a standardised rinsing bath were investigated for up to 140 min at room temperature and using 0.1 g/l of dye concentration, depending on the film-to-bath weight-to-volume ratios (from 1:10 to 1:1000), thus simulating different rinsing conditions. The results show that up to 80 % of the dye was removed in the first 20 min in the lowest weight-to-volume ratio (1:10), fitting the Langmuir isotherm, and the process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic, yielding a multi-layer adsorption mechanism with a monolayer capacity of ~11 mg/g and ~21 vs. ~30 mg/g by films prepared from native or HCltreated and PDADMA100 vs. PDADMA400 coated P371 zeolites, respectively. Such efficacy was due to the more densely and fully surface-covered longitudinal P371 with PDADM400, given the huge electrostatic attraction sites for dye molecules, compared to the partly interpenetrated PDADM into relatively larger pore-sized (~450 nm vs. 220 nm) of P26. The filtration performance of the films was also examined, be used for the removal of the dye from the rinsing bath, released from the washing drum. An ultra-high flux rate (11.000 kL/m2 h MPa) with 45 % of dye removal efficacy and capacity of ~24 mg/g was provided by films prepared from spherical and aggregated P26PDADMA-400, showing its high potential also as a filter membrane.
KeywordsTextile Laundering Nanocellulose Zeolite Dye removal
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