Fibers and Polymers

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 407–412 | Cite as

Synthesis and properties of symmetrically substituted 4,4′-bis(1,3,5-triazinyl)-diamino stilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid derivatives as UV absorbing and fluorescent whitening agents

  • Maqbool Hussain
  • Khalid Mohammed Khan
  • Syed Ishrat Ali
  • Rasheeda Parveen
  • Woo Sub Shim


The fluorescence properties of textiles dyed with optical brighteners have been widely reported in literature. However, little sufficient study has investigated the UV protection properties of textiles dyed with fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs). This study reports the synthesis of a series of stilbene-triazine compounds and their performance on cotton fiber as UV absorbing and FWAs. Triazinyldiaminostilbene compounds were synthesized by reacting 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid with 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine to give 4,4′-bis(4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)aminostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid. This intermediate was further condensed in two steps with amines by nucleophilic substituents on their triazine moiety. The structure of synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques i.e. IR, UV, elemental analysis and conformed by proton NMR Spectroscopy. These compounds were applied to cotton fiber as fluorescent whitening and UV absorbing agents. Their performances were evaluated with regards to whitening effects, ultraviolet protection factor (UPF), degree of exhaustion and fastness test.


Fluorescent whitening agent UV absorbing agent Stilbene Whiteness Exhaustion Ultraviolet protection factor 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    P. Krais, Melliand Textber., 10, 468 (1929).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Zollinger, “Color Chemistry: Syntheses, Properties, and Applications of Organic Dyes and Pigments”, pp.56–89, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2003.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. K. Lee, S. I. Um, Y. Kang, and D. J. Baek, Dyes Pigm., 64, 93 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. L. Baker, U. S. Patent, 6165973 (2000).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    X. Wang, W. Li, X. H. Zhang, D. Z. Liu, and X. Q. Zhou, Dyes Pigm., 64, 141 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Shore, “Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties”, pp.23–36, Society of Dyers and Colourists, West Yorshire, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. M. Grancaric and T. Pusic, Proc. AIC 2004 Color and Paints, Brazil, pp.125–128 (2004).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Saravanan, AUTEX Res. J., 7, 53 (2007).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Eckhardt, D. Reinehr, G. Metzger, and H. Sauter, U.S. Patent, 5939379 (1999).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Lu, G. Larson, H. Q. Tran, and W. A. Houle, U.S. Patent, 20060246383 (2006).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. C. Jackson, U.S. Patent, 7198731 (2005).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    “AATCC Technical Manual”, pp.54–58, AATCC, Raleigh, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Fiber Society and Springer Netherlands 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maqbool Hussain
    • 1
  • Khalid Mohammed Khan
    • 2
  • Syed Ishrat Ali
    • 1
  • Rasheeda Parveen
    • 2
  • Woo Sub Shim
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistryUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological SciencesUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.Textile Engineering, Chemistry & Science DepartmentNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations