Analysis Method Using Two-Wavelength Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for the Measurement of Soret Coefficients in Soret-Facet Mission on ISS

  • Momoko TomaruEmail author
  • Takuma Osada
  • Isamu Orikasa
  • Shinsuke Suzuki
  • Yuko Inatomi
Original Article


The Soret-Facet mission was conducted under microgravity conditions to measure the Soret coefficient (ST) for salol/tert-butyl alcohol using a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (2-MZI). The 2-MZI is useful in the simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration in binary mixtures. However, the simultaneous analysis of the 2-MZI had the limitation in accurate determination of ST because of the uncertainties in the experimental values of coefficients of refractive indices. To reduce the uncertainties in the measurement of coefficients of refractive indices, this paper describes an alternative method to measure temperature and concentration individually, using the 2-MZI. This alternative method was applied to analyze the microgravity data of Soret-Facet mission and the changes of temperature and concentration were shown at each wavelength. The coefficients of refractive indices and ST were corrected based on matching the two changes of temperature or concentration so that two or three of the following constraints were satisfied: fulfill the deviation ranges of coefficients; minimize the difference between two gradients; and match with thermocouples. This correction led to the reduction in dispersions of analyzed values in the simultaneous analysis, and clarified that it is necessary to improve not only the coefficients of refractive indices but also the ratio between phase changes in the simultaneous analysis. The results indicated that the separate analysis for the 2-MZI can estimate the coefficients of refractive indices and is useful for measuring the Soret coefficient in binary mixtures.


Soret effect Microgravity experiment Salol/tert-butyl alcohol Two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer 



Constant value


Matrix of refractive index


Concentration of the solute (mole fraction) [−]


Initial concentration of the solute (mole fraction) [−]


Thickness of a sample [mm]


Number of condition [−]


Temperature coefficient of refractive index [K−1]


Concentration coefficient of refractive index [−]


Soret coefficient [K−1]


Temperature [K, °C]


Time [h]


Time when the temperature is stabilized [h]


Distance from the lower-temperature side of the cell [mm]


Width direction of the cell [mm]


Normalized temperature coefficients of refractive indices [−]


Normalized concentration coefficients of refractive indices [−]


Phase change [rad]

Δφ(T, C)

Allover phase changes [rad]


Temperature component of phase changes [rad]


Concentration component of phase changes [rad]


Temperature change [K]


Concentration change of the solute (mole fraction) [−]


Wavelength [nm]


Characteristic time [h]


Wavelength for the parameter (532 nm, 780 nm)



The authors are deeply grateful to Dr. S. Adachi (JAXA) and Dr. T. Shimaoka (JSF) for helpful discussions, and the members of JEM Utilization Center, JAXA Flight Control Team and JAMSS for the operation of the payloads during the ISS experiments. We also thank Dr. V. Nirmal Kumar (JAXA) for his comments and suggestions.


  1. Bou-Ali, M.M., Ahadi, A., Alonso de Mezquia, D., Galand, Q., Gebhardt, M., Khlybov, O., Kohler, W., Larrañaga, M., Legros, J.C., Lyubimova, T., Mialdun, A., Ryzhkov, I., Saghir, M.Z., Shevtsova, V., Van Vaerenbergh, S.: Benchmark values for the Soret, thermodiffusion and molecular diffusion coefficients of the ternary mixture tetralin+isobutylbenzene+n-dodecane with 0.8-0.1-0.1 mass fraction. Eur. Phys. J. E. 38, 30 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. Georis, P., Montel, F., Van Vaerenbergh, S., Decroly, Y., Legros, J.C.: Measurement of the Soret coefficient in crude oil. Pro. Eur. Pet. Conf. 1, 57–62 (1998)Google Scholar
  3. Inatomi, Y.: Crystal growth research using Kibo. Int. J. Microgravity Sci. Appl. 28, 155–159 (2011)Google Scholar
  4. Inatomi, Y., Yoshizaki, I., Sakata, K., Shimaoka, T., Sone, T., Tomobe, T., Adachi, S., Yoda, S., Yoshimura, Y.: Investigation on mechanism of faceted cellular array growth in International Space Station. Defect Diffus. Forum. 323, 533–537 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Inatomi, Y., Ashida, M., Sakata, K., Okutani, T.: Simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration during faceted cellular array growth under microgravity. World J. Eng. 11, 41–48 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mercer, C.R.: Effect of refractive index variation on two-wavelength interferometry for fluid measurements. NASA/TM - 207925. (1998)Google Scholar
  7. Mialdun, A., Shevtsova, V.: Development of optical digital interferometry technique for measurement of thermodiffuision coefficients. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 51, 3164–3178 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mialdun, A., Shevtsova, V.: Measurement of the Soret and diffusion coefficients for benchmark binary mixtures by means of digital interferometry. J. Chem. Phys. 134, 044524 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mialdun, A., Minetti, C., Gaponenko, Y., Shevtsova, V., Dubois, F.: Analysis of the thermal performance of SODI instrument for DCMIX configuration. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 25, 83–94 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mialdun, A., Legros, J.C., Yasnou, V., Sechenyh, V., Shevtsova, V.: Contribution to the benchmark for ternary mixtures: Measurement of Soret, diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients in the ternary mixture THN/IBB/nC 12 with 0.8/0.1/0.1 mass fractions in ground and orbital laboratories. Eur. Phys. J. E. 38, 27 (2015)Google Scholar
  11. Mori, Y., Hashimoto, Y., Suzuki, S., Inatomi, Y.: Investigation of the application of a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure Soret coefficients. Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aeron. Space Sci. 12, 37–40 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. Osada, T., Hashimoto, Y., Tomaru, M., Suzuki, S., Inatomi, Y., Ito, Y., Shimaoka, T.: Improvement of interference fringe analysis for Soret coefficient measurement in Soret-facet mission. Int. J. Microgravity Sci. Appl. 33, 330407 (2016)Google Scholar
  13. Platten, J.K., Bou-Ali, M.M., Costesèque, P., Dutrieux, J.F., Köhler, W., Leppla, C., Wiegand, S., Wittko, G.: Benchmark values for the Soret, thermal diffusion and diffusion coefficients of three binary organic liquid mixtures. Philos. Mag. 83, 1965–1971 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shevtsova, V., Mialdun, A., Melnikov, D., Ryzhkov, I., Gaponenko, Y., Saghir, Z., Lyubimova, T., Legros, J.C.: The IVIDIL experiment onboard the ISS: Thermodiffusion in the presence of controlled vibrations. C. R. Mécanique. 339, 310–317 (2011a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shevtsova, V., Sechenyh, V., Nepomnyashchy, A., Legros, J.C.: Analysis of the application of optical two-wavelength techniques to measurement of the Soret coefficients in ternary mixtures. Philos. Mag. 91, 3498–3518 (2011b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Triller, T., Bataller, H., Bou-Ali, M.M., Braibanti, M., Croccolo, F., Ezquerro, J.M., Galand, Q., Gavaldà, J., Lapeira, E., Laverón-Simavilla, A., Lyubímova, T., Mialdun, A., Ortiz de Zárate, J.M., Rodriguez, J., Ruiz, X., Ryzhkov, I.I., Shevtsova, V., Van Vaerenbergh, S., Köhler, W.: Thermodiffusion in ternary mixtures of water/ethanol/triethylene glycol: first report on the DCMIX3-experiments performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 30, 295–308 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Van Vaerenbergh, S., Legros, J.C., Daridon, J.L., Karapantsios, T., Kostoglou, M., Saghir, Z.M.: Multicomponent transport studies of crude oils and asphaltenes in DSC program. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 18, 150–154 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and EngineeringWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science and TechnologyWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Space and Astronautical ScienceJapan Aerospace Exploration AgencySagamiharaJapan
  4. 4.School of Physical SciencesSOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies)SagamiharaJapan

Personalised recommendations