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Analysis Method Using Two-Wavelength Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for the Measurement of Soret Coefficients in Soret-Facet Mission on ISS

  • Momoko TomaruEmail author
  • Takuma Osada
  • Isamu Orikasa
  • Shinsuke Suzuki
  • Yuko Inatomi
Original Article
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

The Soret-Facet mission was conducted under microgravity conditions to measure the Soret coefficient (ST) for salol/tert-butyl alcohol using a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (2-MZI). The 2-MZI is useful in the simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration in binary mixtures. However, the simultaneous analysis of the 2-MZI had the limitation in accurate determination of ST because of the uncertainties in the experimental values of coefficients of refractive indices. To reduce the uncertainties in the measurement of coefficients of refractive indices, this paper describes an alternative method to measure temperature and concentration individually, using the 2-MZI. This alternative method was applied to analyze the microgravity data of Soret-Facet mission and the changes of temperature and concentration were shown at each wavelength. The coefficients of refractive indices and ST were corrected based on matching the two changes of temperature or concentration so that two or three of the following constraints were satisfied: fulfill the deviation ranges of coefficients; minimize the difference between two gradients; and match with thermocouples. This correction led to the reduction in dispersions of analyzed values in the simultaneous analysis, and clarified that it is necessary to improve not only the coefficients of refractive indices but also the ratio between phase changes in the simultaneous analysis. The results indicated that the separate analysis for the 2-MZI can estimate the coefficients of refractive indices and is useful for measuring the Soret coefficient in binary mixtures.

Keywords

Soret effect Microgravity experiment Salol/tert-butyl alcohol Two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer 

Nomenclature

a

Constant value

A

Matrix of refractive index

C

Concentration of the solute (mole fraction) [−]

C0

Initial concentration of the solute (mole fraction) [−]

d

Thickness of a sample [mm]

K

Number of condition [−]

(∂n/∂T)C,λ

Temperature coefficient of refractive index [K−1]

(∂n/∂C)T,λ

Concentration coefficient of refractive index [−]

ST

Soret coefficient [K−1]

T

Temperature [K, °C]

t

Time [h]

tth

Time when the temperature is stabilized [h]

x

Distance from the lower-temperature side of the cell [mm]

y

Width direction of the cell [mm]

α

Normalized temperature coefficients of refractive indices [−]

β

Normalized concentration coefficients of refractive indices [−]

Δφ

Phase change [rad]

Δφ(T, C)

Allover phase changes [rad]

Δφ(T)

Temperature component of phase changes [rad]

Δφ(C)

Concentration component of phase changes [rad]

ΔT

Temperature change [K]

ΔC

Concentration change of the solute (mole fraction) [−]

λ

Wavelength [nm]

τ

Characteristic time [h]

i

Wavelength for the parameter (532 nm, 780 nm)

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are deeply grateful to Dr. S. Adachi (JAXA) and Dr. T. Shimaoka (JSF) for helpful discussions, and the members of JEM Utilization Center, JAXA Flight Control Team and JAMSS for the operation of the payloads during the ISS experiments. We also thank Dr. V. Nirmal Kumar (JAXA) for his comments and suggestions.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and EngineeringWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science and TechnologyWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Space and Astronautical ScienceJapan Aerospace Exploration AgencySagamiharaJapan
  4. 4.School of Physical SciencesSOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies)SagamiharaJapan

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