Journal of Micro-Bio Robotics

, Volume 8, Issue 3–4, pp 121–131 | Cite as

Modular micro-robotic assembly through magnetic actuation and thermal bonding

  • Eric DillerEmail author
  • Naicheng Zhang
  • Metin Sitti
Research Paper


We present and compare new heat-activated bonding methods for use in modular micro-robotic systems. Such modular systems prove to provide on-demand creation of arbitrary micro-scale physical shapes in remote inaccessible spaces. The bonding methods presented here quickly form strong bonds through the use of thermoplastic or solder binding sites integrated into each module face, addressing problems of assembly strength and electrical conductivity. The strength of the bonds for each method are presented for different module styles, bonding conditions and breaking conditions in a destructive test, and are compared with previous magnetic bonding methods. For 80 micrometer modules, bond strengths of up to 500 mN are observed with thermoplastic bonds, which indicates that the assemblies could be potentially used in high-force structural applications of programmable matter, microfluidic channels or healthcare. Using previously-developed micro-robot addressing methods, magnetically-functionalized modules are moved remotely for assembly using a magnetic coil system. In this way, a set of up to nine modules are remotely assembled one-by-one into an arbitrary shape capable of locomotion to demonstrate the scalability and strength of the system.


Micro-robotics Remote actuation Micro-assembly 



The authors thank Shuhei Miyashita and all members of the NanoRobotics Lab for their assistance and input on this research. They also thank Andrew Gamble for assistance using the magnetometry equipment.

Supplementary material

(MB 13.8 MB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PittsburghUSA

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