Rendiconti Lincei

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 247–258 | Cite as

Neuroaesthetics: themes from the past, current issues, and challenges for the future

  • Marcos Nadal
  • Albert Flexas
  • Álex Gálvez
  • Camilo José Cela-Conde
Interplay of the Two Cultures: Neuroaesthetics


Neuroaesthetics is a growing field of research concerned with the biological foundations of aesthetic experiences and artistic activities. In this paper we trace the major milestones in the history of neuroaesthetics, from British Empiricism to current neuroimaging studies, emphasizing the continuity of certain basic assumptions and controversies. Thereafter we turn to an issue that has received attention only recently: differences between men and women in the neural underpinnings of aesthetic preference. We argue that the combination of neuroimaging techniques and evolutionary reasoning affords the possibility of an integral understanding of the biological foundations of aesthetic experiences. Finally, we summarize some challenges neuroaesthetics will have to face in the future.


Neuroaesthetics Aesthetic appreciation Beauty Sex-related differences 



This research was made possible by Research Grant FFI2010-20759 awarded by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. Albert Flexas was supported by grant AP2008-02284 awarded by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación.


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Copyright information

© Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcos Nadal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Albert Flexas
    • 1
  • Álex Gálvez
    • 1
  • Camilo José Cela-Conde
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Human Evolution and Cognition Research Group (IFISC-CSIC)University of the Balearic IslandsPalma de MallorcaSpain
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of the Balearic IslandsPalma de MallorcaSpain
  3. 3.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of the Balearic IslandsPalma de MallorcaSpain

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