Advertisement

Transactions of Tianjin University

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 618–630 | Cite as

Pressure Drop of Liquid–Solid Two-Phase Flow in the Vertical Tube Bundle of a Cold-Model Circulating Fluidized Bed Evaporator

  • Feng JiangEmail author
  • Siyao Lv
  • Guopeng Qi
  • Xiaoling Chen
  • Xiulun Li
Research Article
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

A cold-model vertical multi-tube circulating fluidized bed evaporator was designed and built to conduct a visualization study on the pressure drop of a liquid–solid two-phase flow and the corresponding particle distribution. Water and polyformaldehyde particle (POM) were used as the liquid and solid phases, respectively. The effects of operating parameters such as the amount of added particles, circulating flow rate, and particle size were systematically investigated. The results showed that the addition of the particles increased the pressure drop in the vertical tube bundle. The maximum pressure drop ratios were 18.65%, 21.15%, 18.00%, and 21.15% within the experimental range of the amount of added particles for POM1, POM2, POM3, and POM4, respectively. The pressure drop ratio basically decreased with the increase in the circulating flow rate but fluctuated with the increase in the amount of added particles and particle size. The difference in pressure drop ratio decreased with the increase in the circulating flow rate. As the amount of added particles increased, the difference in pressure drop ratio fluctuated at low circulating flow rate but basically decreased at high circulating flow rate. The pressure drop in the vertical tube bundle accounted for about 70% of the overall pressure drop in the up-flow heating chamber and was the main component of the overall pressure within the experimental range. Three-dimensional phase diagrams were established to display the variation ranges of the pressure drop and pressure drop ratio in the vertical tube bundle corresponding to the operating parameters. The research results can provide some reference for the application of the fluidized bed heat transfer technology in the industry.

Keywords

Pressure drop Liquid–solid two-phase flow Circulating fluidized bed evaporator Vertical tube bundle Heat transfer enhancement Fouling prevention Descaling 

List of Symbols

\(\Delta h\)

Height difference between the inlet and outlet of vertical tube bundle (m)

\(\Delta h_{1}\)

Height difference between the inlet and outlet of up-flow heating chamber (m)

P1

Inlet pressure of the up-flow heating chamber (kPa)

P2

Inlet pressure of the vertical tube bundle (kPa)

P3

Outlet pressure of the vertical tube bundle (kPa)

P4

Outlet pressure of the up-flow heating chamber (kPa)

\(\Delta P\)

Pressure drop in the vertical tube bundle (kPa)

\(\Delta P_{1}\)

Pressure drop in the up-flow heating chamber (kPa)

\(\Delta P_{0}\)

Pressure drop of the single liquid phase flow (kPa)

\(\Delta P_{{ 0 {\text{s}}}}\)

Pressure drop of the liquid–solid two-phase flow (kPa)

Q

Circulating flow rate (m3/h)

R

Ratio of the pressure drop of vertical tube bundle to the overall pressure drop of the up-flow heating chamber (%)

S

Pressure drop ratio (%)

Smax

Maximum pressure drop ratio of the liquid–solid two-phase flow (%)

Smin

Minimum pressure drop ratio of the liquid–solid two-phase flow (%)

\(\Delta S\)

Difference in pressure drop ratio (%)

Greek Symbols

ε

Amount of added particles

ρ

Fluid density (kg/m3)

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the open foundation of State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering (SKL-ChE-18B03) and the Municipal Science and Technology Commission of Tianjin (No. 2009ZCKFGX01900).

References

  1. 1.
    Shen C, Cirone C, Yang LC et al (2014) Characteristics of fouling development in shell-and-tube heat exchanger: effects of velocity and installation location. Int J Heat Mass Transf 77:439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Müller-Steinhagen H, Zhao Q (1997) Investigation of low fouling surface alloys made by ion implantation technology. Chem Eng Sci 52(19):3321–3332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pronk P, Infante Ferreira CA, Witkamp GJ (2009) Prevention of fouling and scaling in stationary and circulating liquid–solid fluidized bed heat exchangers: particle impact measurements and analysis. Int J Heat Mass Transf 52:3857–3868zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Qi GP, Jiang F (2015) Parametric study of particle distribution in tube bundle heat exchanger. Powder Technol 271:210–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bi HY, Duan ML, Gu XH (2011) Study on the performance of a single tube liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed sewage heat exchanger. J Shenyang Jianzhu Univ (Natural Sci) 27(2):331–334 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jiang F, Jiang T, Qi GP et al (2019) Effect of flow directions on multiphase flow boiling heat transfer enhanced by suspending particles in a circulating evaporation system. Trans Tianjin Univ. 25(3):201–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Razzak SA, Agarwal K, Zhu JX (2008) Numerical investigation on the hydrodynamics of an LSCFB riser. Powder Technol 188:42–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pronk P, Infante Ferreira CA, Witkamp GJ (2010) Mitigation of ice crystallization fouling in stationary and circulating liquid–solid fluidized bed heat exchangers. Int J Heat Mass Transf 53:403–411zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meijer JJAM (1983) Prevention of calcium sulfate scale deposition by a fluidized bed. Desalination 47(1–3):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Veenman AW (1978) A review of new developments in desalination by distillation processes. Desalination 27(1):21–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Collado FJ (2018) Hydrodynamics model for the dilute zone of circulating fluidized beds. Powder Technol 328:108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chandel MK, Alappat BJ (2006) Pressure drop and gas bypassing in recirculating fluidized beds. Chem Eng Sci 61:1489–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu HP, Li JW, Wang Q (2017) Simulation of gas–solid flow characteristics in a circulating fluidized bed based on a computational particle fluid dynamics model. Powder Technol 321:132–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grieco E, Marmo L (2006) Predicting the pressure drop across the solids flow rate control device of a circulating fluidized bed. Powder Technol 161:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grieco E, Marmo L (2008) A model for the pressure balance of a low density circulating fluidized bed. Chem Eng J 140:414–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gungor A (2008) Predicting axial pressure profile of a CFB. Chem Eng J 140:448–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wen JP, Zhou H, Li XL (2004) Performance of a new vapor–liquid–solid three-phase circulating fluidized bed evaporator. Chem Eng Process 43(1):49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wen JP, Jia XQ, Wang CY et al (2005) Heat transfer and pressure drop of vapor-liquid-solid three-phase boiling flow of binary mixtures. Chem Eng Commun 192:956–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cho YJ, Song PS, Lee CG et al (2005) Liquid radial dispersion in liquid-solid circulating fluidized beds with viscous liquid medium. Chem Eng Commun 192:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang SF, Shen ZY, Liu Y (2009) Experimental study on the effect of three-phase distributor on pressure drop in exterior circulating fluidized bed. J Hebei Univ Technol 38:42–45 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Qi GP, Wang BB, Jiang F (2013) Pressure drop and particles distribution in the vapor–liquid–solid multi-pipe circulating fluidized bed evaporator. Chem Ind Eng 30(3):66–70 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zheng Y, Zhu JX (2000) Overall pressure balance and system stability in a liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed. Chem Eng J 79(2):145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hashizume K, Morita S, Nakamura Y et al (2009) Pressure drop in liquid–solid circulating fluidized beds. Heat Transf Asian Res 38(4):248–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hashizume K, Kimura Y, Morita S (2009) Analogy between pressure drop and heat transfer in liquid–solid circulating fluidized beds. Heat Transf Asian Res 38(3):183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang SD, Wang XY, Zhao K et al (2011) Flow characteristics in the high-density circulating fluidized bed risers with different cross sections. Proc Chin Soc Electr Eng 31:8–13 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Khurram MS, Choi JH, Won YS et al (2016) Relationship between solid flow rate and pressure drop in the riser of a pressurized circulating fluidized bed. J Chem Eng Jpn 49:595–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang H, Wang JG, Zhang SF (2008) Experimental study of fouling preventing in a horizontal liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed heat exchanger. Chem Equip Technol 29:31–33 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu Y, Zhang SF, Zhang W (2012) Study on particles distribution characteristics through a circulation fluidized bed with the spiral flow generator. Energy Procedia 14:1111–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jiang F, Bian YW, Qi GP et al (2016) Study on the particle distribution of a horizontal multi-tube circulating fluidized bed. Powder Technol 295:272–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jiang F, Zhao PL, Qi GP et al (2018) Pressure drop in horizontal multi-tube liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed. Powder Technol 333:60–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jiang F, Zhao PL, Qi GP et al (2019) Flow characteristics in a horizontal liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed. Powder Technol 342:24–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Monji H, Matsui G, Saito T (1995) Pressure drop reduction of liquid-particles two-phase flow with nearly equal density. Multiph Flow 7(2):355–365Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu Y, Li HB, Wang JG et al (2013) Study on pressure drop of liquid–solid two-phase fluidized bed heat exchanger with Kenics static mixer. Chem Ind Eng Prog 11:2579–2582 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Qi GP, Jiang F (2015) Numerical investigation on prevention of fouling in the horizontal tube heat exchanger: particle distribution and pressure drop. Desalination 367:112–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tianjin University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feng Jiang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siyao Lv
    • 1
  • Guopeng Qi
    • 2
  • Xiaoling Chen
    • 1
  • Xiulun Li
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemical Engineering and TechnologyTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.School of Biological and Environmental EngineeringTianjin Vocational InstituteTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations