Transactions of Tianjin University

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 131–143 | Cite as

Transient Heat Transfer Study of Direct Contact Condensation of Steam in Spray Cooling Water

Research Article
  • 69 Downloads

Abstract

We conducted a transient experimental investigation of steam–water direct contact condensation in the absence of non-condensible gas in a laboratory-scale column with the inner diameter of 325 mm and the height of 1045 mm. We applied a new analysis method for the steam state equation to analyze the molar quantity change in steam over the course of the experiment and determined the transient steam variation. We also investigated the influence of flow rates and temperatures of cooling water on the efficiency of steam condensation. Our experimental results show that appropriate increasing of the cooling water flow rate can significantly accelerate the steam condensation. We achieved a rapid increase in the total volumetric heat transfer coefficient by increasing the flow rate of cooling water, which indicated a higher thermal convection between the steam and the cooling water with higher flow rates. We found that the temperature of cooling water did not play an important role on steam condensation. This method was confirmed to be effective for rapid recovering of steam.

Keywords

Direct contact condensation Steam Spray cooling water Transient heat transfer performance Steam state equation Volumetric heat transfer coefficient 

Abbreviations

DCC

Direct contact condensation

ECCS

Emergency core cooling system

EOS

Equation of state

RKS

Soave–Redlich–Kwong equation

Symbols

p

Absolute pressure, kPa

V

Molar volume, mL/mol

T

Temperature, °C

Ts

Steam temperature, °C

d

Diameter of column, mm

R

Gas constant, mL kPa/(mol K)

Lw

Flow rates of cooling water, L/h

n

Molar quantity, mol

Q

Heat flux between steam and cooling water, kW

Cp,c

Specific heat capacity, kJ/(kg °C)

tw,in

Inlet temperature of water, °C

tw,out

Outlet temperature of water, °C

Δtm

Logarithmic mean temperature difference, °C

ρw

Water density, kg/m3

hv

Volumetric heat transfer coefficient, kW/(m3 K)

References

  1. 1.
    Fair JR (1990) Direct contact gas–liquid heat exchange for energy recovery. J Sol Energy Eng 112(3):216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Genić SB, Jaćimović BM, Vladić LA (2008) Heat transfer rate of direct contact condensation on baffle trays. Int J Heat Mass Transf 51(25–26):5772–5776Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fair JR (1972) Designing direct-contact coolers/condensers. Chem Eng 12(79):91–100Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bharathan D, Parsons BK, Althof JA (1988) Direct contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings. NASA STI/RECON Technical Report N 89. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/3108.pdf
  5. 5.
    Duffey RB, Porthouse DTC (1973) The physics of rewetting in water reactor emergency core cooling. Nucl Eng Des 25(3):379–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhukov AV, Sorokin AP, Kuzina YA (2013) Emergency cooling down of fast-neutron reactors by natural convection (a review). Therm Eng 60(5):345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fair JR (1961) Design of direct-contact gas coolers. Chem Eng 33:57–64Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fair JR (1971) Process heat transfer by direct fluid-phase contact. AIChE Symp Ser No 118(68):1–11Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huang CC, Fair JR (1989) Direct-contact gas-liquid heat transfer in a packed column. Heat Transf Eng 10(2):19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sideman S (1982) Advances in heat transfer, direct contact condensation. Adv Heat Transf 15:227–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lim IS, Tankin RS, Yuen MC (1984) Condensation measurement of horizontal cocurrent steam/water flow. J Heat Transf 106(2):425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee KW, Chu IC, Yu SO et al (2006) Interfacial condensation for countercurrent steam–water stratified wavy flow in a horizontal circular pipe. Int J Heat Mass Transf 49(17–18):3121–3129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Park HS, Choi SW, No HC (2009) Direct-contact condensation of pure steam on co-current and counter-current stratified liquid flow in a circular pipe. Int J Heat Mass Transf 52(5–6):1112–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wu XZ, Yan JJ, Li WJ et al (2009) Experimental study on sonic steam jet condensation in quiescent subcooled water. Chem Eng Sci 64(23):5002–5012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hong SJ, Park GC, Cho S et al (2012) Condensation dynamics of submerged steam jet in subcooled water. Int J Multiph Flow 39:66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kalman H, Mori YH (2002) Experimental analysis of a single vapor bubble condensing in subcooled liquid. Chem Eng J 85(2–3):197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Agrawal C, Ravi K, Akhilesh G et al (2013) Determination of rewetting velocity during jet impingement cooling of a hot surface. J Therm Sci Eng Appl 5(1):011007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xu Q, Guo L, Zou S et al (2013) Experimental study on direct contact condensation of stable steam jet in water flow in a vertical pipe. Int J Heat Mass Transf 66(6):808–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu XZ, Yan JJ, Shao SF et al (2007) Experimental study on the condensation of supersonic steam jet submerged in quiescent subcooled water: Steam plume shape and heat transfer. Int J Multiph Flow 33(12):1296–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gulawani SS, Joshi JB, Shah MS et al (2006) CFD analysis of flow pattern and heat transfer in direct contact steam condensation. Chem Eng Sci 61(16):5204–5220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dahikar SK, Sathe MJ, Joshi JB (2010) Investigation of flow and temperature patterns in direct contact condensation using PIV, PLIF and CFD. Chem Eng Sci 65(16):4606–4620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li X, Liu S, Cui X et al (2013) Experimental study of direct contact steam condensation in structured packing. Asia-Pac J Chem Eng 8(5):657–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Andres MCD, Hoo E, Zangrando F (1996) Performance of direct-contact heat and mass exchangers with steam-gas mixtures at subatmospheric pressures. Int J Heat Mass Transf 39(5):965–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li Y, Klausner JF, Mei R et al (2006) Direct contact condensation in packed beds. Int J Heat Mass Transf 49(25–26):4751–4761CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mahood HB, Sharif AO, Thorpe RB (2014) Transient volumetric heat transfer coefficient prediction of a three-phase direct contact condenser. Heat Mass Transf 51(2):165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schulenberg T, Raqué M (2014) Manuel Transient heat transfer during depressurization from supercritical pressure. Int J Heat Mass Transf 79(79):233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alnaimat F, Klausner JF, Mei R (2011) Transient analysis of direct contact evaporation and condensation within packed beds. Int J Heat Mass Transf 54(15–16):3381–3393CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cho S, Chun SY, Baek WP et al (2004) Effect of multiple holes on the performance of sparger during direct contact condensation of steam. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 28(6):629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kreith F, Bharathan D (1988) Heat transfer research for ocean thermal energy conversion. In: ASME, AIChE, and ANS, 24th national heat transfer conference and exhibitionGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van der Waals JD (1910) The equation of state for gases and liquids (Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1910)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Soave G (1972) Equilibrium constants from a modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state. Chem Eng Sci 27(6):1197–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen WX, Zhao QB, Wang YC et al (2016) Characteristic of pressure oscillation caused by turbulent vortexes and affected region of pressure oscillation. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 76:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tianjin University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical Engineering and TechnologyTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.School of ArchitectureTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  3. 3.Tianjin University Research Institute of Architectural DesignTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations