Place branding and place marketing: a contemporary analysis of the literature and usage of terminology

  • 204 Accesses


Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the “place branding” and “place marketing” research domain, complexities associated with it have not been addressed adequately, and ambiguity between uses of both the terms is evident. Therefore, the present study aims to provide a contemporary, systematic and exhaustive overview of “place branding” and “place marketing” literature by rigorously analyzing 188 articles since its inception, i.e. from 1975 to 2018 contributed by 370 authors published across 67 different academic and scholarly journals. The identified articles are systematically classified into various categories like research themes, bibliographic data, research methods of studies reviewed, methods of data collection and proposed theoretical/conceptual frameworks/models, geographical entities studied, major trends and the paradigm shift of this concept. Further analysis discerns that there is the dominance of qualitative research relying heavily on conceptual and case studies. However, results show an exponential increase in quantitative studies from 2015 onwards. Also, this field lacks empirically tested theories, concepts, models, suffers from divergent and ambiguous definitions, and inadequate theoretical foundations. As a result, the reliability of various factors concerned with “place branding” and “place marketing” remains unsubstantiated. Finally, this study concludes by identifying prominent research and review articles; it further discusses the differences between “place branding” and “place marketing.” At last, it identifies the knowledge gaps in this area that can be addressed in future studies.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Change history

  • 18 December 2019

    Unfortunately in Volume 16, the Issue 2–4 had been published online with an incorrect date (2001 instead of 2019).


  1. Acharya, A., & Rahman, Z. (2016). Place branding research: A thematic review and future research agenda. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 13(3), 289–317.

  2. Aitken, R., & Campelo, A. (2011). The four Rs of place branding. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(9–10), 913–933.

  3. Alcañiz, E. B., García, I. S., & Blas, S. S. (2009). The functional-psychological continuum in the cognitive image of a destination: A confirmatory analysis. Tourism Management, 30(5), 715–723.

  4. Alekseyevna, K. G., & Viktorovna, S. M. (2014). Place branding as a development factor of tourist regions. World Applied Sciences Journal, 30(MCTT)), 107-108.

  5. Allen, G. (2007). Place branding: New tools for economic development. Design Management Review, 18(2), 60–68.

  6. Almeyda-Ibáñez, M., & George, B. P. (2017). Place branding in tourism: A review of theoretical approaches and management practices. Tourism & Management Studies, 13(4), 10–19.

  7. Andersson, I. (2014). Placing place branding: An analysis of an emerging research field in human geography. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography, 114(2), 143–155.

  8. Anholt, S. (2005). Some important distinctions in place branding.

  9. Anholt, S. (2010). Definitions of place branding–working towards a resolution.

  10. Apostolopoulou, A., & Papadimitriou, D. (2015). The role of destination personality in predicting tourist behaviour: Implications for branding mid-sized urban destinations. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(12), 1132–1151.

  11. Ashworth, G. (2009). The instruments of place branding: How is it done? European Spatial research and policy, 16(1), 9–22.

  12. Ashworth, G., & Page, S. J. (2011). Urban tourism research: Recent progress and current paradoxes. Tourism Management, 32(1), 1–15.

  13. Askegaard, S., & Kjeldgaard, D. (2007). Here, there, and everywhere: Place branding and gastronomical globalization in a macromarketing perspective. Journal of Macromarketing, 27(2), 138–147.

  14. Avraham, E. (2015). Destination image repair during crisis: Attracting tourism during the Arab spring uprisings. Tourism Management, 47, 224–232.

  15. Baker, B. (2007). Destination branding for small cities: The essentials for successful place branding. Destination Branding Book.

  16. Bannister, J. P., & Saunders, J. A. (1978). UK consumers’ attitudes towards imports: The measurement of national stereotype image. European Journal of Marketing, 12(8), 562–570.

  17. Bechhofer, F., McCrone, D., Kiely, R., & Stewart, R. (1999). Constructing national identity: Arts and landed elites in Scotland. Sociology, 33(3), 515–534.

  18. Bekk, M., Spörrle, M., & Kruse, J. (2016). The benefits of similarity between tourist and destination personality. Journal of Travel Research, 55(8), 1008–1021.

  19. Berglund, E., & Olsson, K. (2010). Rethinking place marketing–a literature review. In 50th European regional science association congress (pp. 19-23).

  20. Biedenbach, G., & Marell, A. (2010). The impact of customer experience on brand equity in a business-to-business services setting. Journal of Brand Management, 17(6), 446–458.

  21. Bird, G., Westcott, M., & Thiesen, N. (2018). Marketing dark heritage: Building brands, myth-making and social marketing. In The Palgrave Handbook of Dark Tourism Studies (pp. 645–665). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  22. Blichfeldt, B. S. (2005). Unmanageable place brands? Place branding, 1(4), 388–401.

  23. Bodet, G., & Lacassagne, M. F. (2012). International place branding through sporting events: A British perspective of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(4), 357–374.

  24. Boisen, M., Terlouw, K., & van Gorp, B. (2011). The selective nature of place branding and the layering of spatial identities. Journal of Place Management and Development, 4(2), 135–147.

  25. Boisen, M., Terlouw, K., Groote, P., & Couwenberg, O. (2018). Reframing place promotion, place marketing, and place branding-moving beyond conceptual confusion. Cities, 80, 4–11.

  26. Boland, P. (2013). Sexing up the city in the international beauty contest: The performative nature of spatial planning and the fictive spectacle of place branding. Town Planning Review, 84(2), 251–274.

  27. Bose, S., Roy, S. K., & Tiwari, A. K. (2016). Measuring customer-based place brand equity (CBPBE): An investment attractiveness perspective. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 24(7), 617–634.

  28. Bowen, C., Fidgeon, P., & Page, S. J. (2014). Maritime tourism and terrorism: Customer perceptions of the potential terrorist threat to cruise shipping. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(7), 610–639.

  29. Boyne, S., & Hall, D. (2004). Place promotion through food and tourism: Rural branding and the role of websites. Place branding, 1(1), 80–92.

  30. Braun, E., Kavaratzis, M., & Zenker, S. (2013). My city–my brand: The different roles of residents in place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 6(1), 18–28.

  31. Braun, E., Eshuis, J., & Klijn, E. H. (2014). The effectiveness of place brand communication. Cities, 41, 64–70.

  32. Britton, S. (1991). Tourism, capital, and place: Towards a critical geography of tourism. Environment and planning D: society and space, 9(4), 451–478.

  33. Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism Management, 21(1), 97–116.

  34. Buhmann, A., & Ingenhoff, D. (2015). The 4D model of the country image: An integrative approach from the perspective of communication management. International Communication Gazette, 77(1), 102–124.

  35. Burgess, J. A. (1982). Selling places: Environmental images for the executive. Regional Studies, 16(1), 1–17.

  36. Cai, L. A. (2002). Cooperative branding for rural destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(3), 720–742.

  37. Campbell, S. (1996). Green cities, growing cities, just cities?: Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(3), 296–312.

  38. Campelo, A., Aitken, R., Thyne, M., & Gnoth, J. (2014). Sense of place: The importance for destination branding. Journal of Travel Research, 53(2), 154–166.

  39. Chan, C. S., & Marafa, L. M. (2013). A review of place branding methodologies in the new millennium. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 9(4), 236–253.

  40. Chan, C. S., & Marafa, L. M. (2017). How a green city brand determines the willingness to stay in a city: The case of Hong Kong. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(6), 719–731.

  41. Chekalina, T., Fuchs, M., & Lexhagen, M. (2018). Customer-based destination brand equity modeling: The role of destination resources, value for money, and value in use. Journal of Travel Research, 57(1), 31–51.

  42. Chon, K. S. (1990). The role of destination image in tourism: A review and discussion. The tourist review, 45(2), 2–9.

  43. Clifton, N. (2011). Regional culture in the market place: Place branding and product branding as cultural exchange. European Planning Studies, 19(11), 1973–1994.

  44. Coaffee, J., & Rogers, P. (2008). Reputational risk and resiliency: The branding of security in place-making. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(3), 205–217.

  45. Custódio, M. J. F., Azevedo, A., & Perna, F. P. (2018). Sport events and local communities: A partnership for placemaking. Journal of Place Management and Development, 11(1), 6–25.

  46. d’Hauteserre, A. M. (2001). Destination branding in a hostile environment. Journal of Travel Research, 39(3), 300–307.

  47. Daramola-Martin, A. (2009). Liverpool one and the transformation of a city: Place branding, marketing and the catalytic effects of regeneration and culture on repositioning Liverpool. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5(4), 301–311.

  48. de Noronha, I., Coca-Stefaniak, J. A., & Morrison, A. M. (2017). Confused branding? An exploratory study of place branding practices among place management professionals. Cities, 66, 91–98.

  49. de San Eugenio Vela, J., Nogué, J., & Govers, R. (2017). Visual landscape as a key element of place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 10(1), 23–44.

  50. Demirbag Kaplan, M., Yurt, O., Guneri, B., & Kurtulus, K. (2010). Branding places: Applying brand personality concept to cities. European Journal of Marketing, 44(9/10), 1286–1304.

  51. Dilley, R. S. (1986). Tourist brochures and tourist images. Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 30(1), 59–65.

  52. Dinnie, K. (2004). Place branding: Overview of an emerging literature. Place branding, 1(1), 106–110.

  53. Dooley, G., & Bowie, D. (2005). Place brand architecture: Strategic management of the brand portfolio. Place branding, 1(4), 402–419.

  54. Dredge, D., & Jenkins, J. (2003). Destination place identity and regional tourism policy. Tourism Geographies, 5(4), 383–407.

  55. Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1991). The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of tourism studies, 2(2), 2–12.

  56. Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1993). The measurement of destination image: An empirical assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 31(4), 3–13.

  57. Florek, M. (2005). The country brand as a new challenge for Poland. Place Branding, 1(2), 205–214.

  58. Florek, M., Insch, A., & Gnoth, J. (2006). City council websites as a means of place brand identity communication. Place Branding, 2(4), 276–296.

  59. Fok, K. W. K., & Law, W. W. Y. (2018). City re-imagined: Multi-stakeholder study on branding Hong Kong as a city of greenery. Journal of Environmental Management, 206, 1039–1051.

  60. Foroudi, P., Gupta, S., Kitchen, P., Foroudi, M. M., & Nguyen, B. (2016). A framework of place branding, place image, and place reputation: Antecedents and moderators. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 19(2), 241–264.

  61. Forristal, L. J., & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). Place branding with native species: Personality as a criterion. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5(3), 213–225.

  62. Freire, J. R. (2009). ‘Local People’a critical dimension for place brands. Journal of Brand Management, 16(7), 420–438.

  63. Fullerton, J., Kendrick, A., & Wallis, C. (2008). Brand Borat? Americans' reaction to a Kazakhstani place branding campaign. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(2), 159–168.

  64. Fyall, A., Garrod, B., & Wang, Y. (2012). Destination collaboration: A critical review of theoretical approaches to a multi-dimensional phenomenon. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1(1–2), 10–26.

  65. Gaggiotti, H., Cheng, P. L. K., & Yunak, O. (2008). City brand management (CBM): The case of Kazakhstan. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(2), 115–123.

  66. García, M. D. D., Horlings, L., Swagemakers, P., & Fernández, X. S. (2013). Place branding and endogenous rural development. Departure points for developing an inner brand of the river Minho estuary. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 9(2), 124–140.

  67. Gartner, W. C. (1986). Temporal influences on image change. Annals of Tourism Research, 13(4), 635–644.

  68. Gartner, W. C. (1994). Image formation process. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 2(2–3), 191–216.

  69. Gertner, D. (2011a). A (tentative) meta-analysis of the ‘place marketing’and ‘place branding’literature. Journal of Brand Management, 19(2), 112–131.

  70. Gertner, D. (2011b). Unfolding and configuring two decades of research and publications on place marketing and place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 7(2), 91–106.

  71. Gilberto Marzano, (2015) Using Resource Description Framework (RDF) for Description and Modeling Place Identity. Procedia Computer Science 77:135-140

  72. Giovanardi, M., Lucarelli, A., & Pasquinelli, C. (2013). Towards brand ecology: An analytical semiotic framework for interpreting the emergence of place brands. Marketing Theory, 13(3), 365–383.

  73. Gold, E. R. (2006). Intellectual architecture as place brand. Place Branding, 2(3), 220–228.

  74. Gould, M., & Skinner, H. (2007). Branding on ambiguity? Place branding without a national identity: Marketing Northern Ireland as a post-conflict society in the USA. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3(1), 100–113.

  75. Gustavsson, E., & Elander, I. (2012). Cocky and climate smart? Climate change mitigation and place-branding in three Swedish towns. Local Environment, 17(8), 769–782.

  76. Ha, H. Y., & Perks, H. (2005). Effects of consumer perceptions of brand experience on the web: Brand familiarity, satisfaction and brand trust. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 4(6), 438–452.

  77. Haahti, A., & Yavas, U. (1983). Tourists perceptions of Finland and selected European countries as travel destinations. European Journal of Marketing, 17(2), 34–42.

  78. Hall, D. (1999). Destination branding, niche marketing and national image projection in central and Eastern Europe. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 5(3), 227–237.

  79. Hall, C. M. (2008). Servicescapes, designscapes, branding, and the creation of place-identity: South of Litchfield, Christchurch. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 25(3–4), 233–250.

  80. Hall, C. M. (2014). Will climate change kill Santa Claus? Climate change and high-latitude Christmas place branding. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 14(1), 23–40.

  81. Hankinson, G. (2001). Location branding: A study of the branding practices of 12 English cities. Journal of Brand Management, 9(2), 127–142.

  82. Hankinson, G. (2004). Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 109–121.

  83. Hankinson, G. (2007). The management of destination brands: Five guiding principles based on recent developments in corporate branding theory. Journal of Brand Management, 14(3), 240–254.

  84. Hankinson, G. (2010). Place branding research: A cross-disciplinary agenda and the views of practitioners. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(4), 300–315.

  85. Hanna, S., & Rowley, J. (2008). An analysis of terminology use in place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(1), 61–75.

  86. Hanna, S., & Rowley, J. (2011). Towards a strategic place brand-management model. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(5–6), 458–476.

  87. Hanna, S., & Rowley, J. (2012). Practitioners views on the essence of place brand management. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(2), 102–109.

  88. Hanna, S., & Rowley, J. (2013a). A practitioner-led strategic place brand-management model. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(15–16), 1782–1815.

  89. Hanna, S., & Rowley, J. (2013b). Place brand practitioners' perspectives on the management and evaluation of the brand experience. Town Planning Review, 84(4), 495–515.

  90. Hernández-Mogollón, J. M., Duarte, P. A., & Folgado-Fernández, J. A. (2018). The contribution of cultural events to the formation of the cognitive and affective images of a tourist destination. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 170–178.

  91. Hillier, J. (2003). Shadows of power: An allegory of prudence in land-use planning. Routledge.

  92. Hornskov, S. B. (2007). On the management of authenticity: Culture in the place branding of Øresund. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3(4), 317–331.

  93. Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination image and destination personality: An application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal of Business Research, 59(5), 638–642.

  94. Hospers, G. J. (2004). Place marketing in Europe. Intereconomics, 39(5), 271–279.

  95. Hoyng, R. (2014). Place brands, nonbrands, tags and queries: The networks of urban activism in the creative city Istanbul. Cultural Studies, 28(3), 494–517.

  96. Hu, Y., & Ritchie, J. B. (1993). Measuring destination attractiveness: A contextual approach. Journal of Travel Research, 32(2), 25–34.

  97. Hunt, J. D. (1975). Image as a factor in tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 13(3), 1–7.

  98. Ingelström, F., & Frändberg, K. (2013). Branding Nyköping: A qualitative study on the integration of place branding, Multiple Stakeholders and Infrastructure.

  99. Iversen, N. M., & Hem, L. E. (2008). Provenance associations as core values of place umbrella brands: A framework of characteristics. European Journal of Marketing, 42(5/6), 603–626.

  100. Jacobsen, B. P. (2009). Investor-based place brand equity: A theoretical framework. Journal of Place Management and Development, 2(1), 70–84.

  101. Jacobsen, B. P. (2012). Place brand equity: A model for establishing the effectiveness of place brands. Journal of Place Management and Development, 5(3), 253–271.

  102. Jansson, D. (2012). Branding Åland, branding Ålanders: Reflections on place identity and globalization in a Nordic archipelago. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(2), 119–132.

  103. J Gnoth, (2002) Leveraging export brands through a tourism destination brand. Journal of Brand Management 9 (4):262-280

  104. Joo, Y. M., & Seo, B. (2018). Transformative city branding for policy change: The case of Seoul’s participatory branding. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 36(2), 239–257.

  105. Kalandides, A. (2011). City marketing for Bogotá: A case study in integrated place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 4(3), 282–291.

  106. Kaur, A., Chauhan, A., & Medury, Y. (2016). Destination image of Indian tourism destinations: An evaluation using correspondence analysis. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 28(3), 499–524.

  107. Kavaratzis, M. (2004). From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands. Place branding, 1(1), 58–73.

  108. Kavaratzis, M. (2005). Place branding: A review of trends and conceptual models. The Marketing Review, 5(4), 329–342.

  109. Kavaratzis, M. (2009). Cities and their brands: Lessons from corporate branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5(1), 26–37.

  110. Kavaratzis, M. (2012). From “necessary evil” to necessity: stakeholders' involvement in place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 5(1), 7–19.

  111. Kavaratzis, M., & Ashworth, G. J. (2006). City branding: An effective assertion of identity or a transitory marketing trick? Place Branding, 2(3), 183–194.

  112. Kavaratzis, M., & Hatch, M. J. (2013). The dynamics of place brands: An identity-based approach to place branding theory. Marketing Theory, 13(1), 69–86.

  113. Kemp, E., Childers, C. Y., & Williams, K. H. (2012). Place branding: Creating self-brand connections and brand advocacy. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 21(7), 508–515.

  114. Kerr, G. (2006). From destination brand to location brand. Journal of Brand Management, 13(4–5), 276–283.

  115. Kerr, G., & Balakrishnan, M. S. (2012). Challenges in managing place brands: The case of Sydney. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(1), 6–16.

  116. Kim, Y. H., Li, H., & Nauright, J. (2018). A destination development by building a brand image and sport event tourism: A case of Sport City USA. Sport in Society, 21(8), 1196–1203.

  117. Kislali, H., Kavaratzis, M., & Saren, M. (2016). Rethinking destination image formation. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(1), 70–80.

  118. Klijn, E. H., Eshuis, J., & Braun, E. (2012). The influence of stakeholder involvement on the effectiveness of place branding. Public Management Review, 14(4), 499–519.

  119. Konecnik Ruzzier, M., & Petek, N. (2012). The importance of diverse stakeholders in place branding: The case of “I feel Slovenia”. Anatolia, 23(1), 49–60.

  120. Kotler, P., & Gertner, D. (2002). Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of Brand Management, 9(4), 249–261.

  121. Kotler, P., Nebenzahl, I. D., Lebedenko, V., Rainisto, S., Gertner, D., Clifton, R., et al. (2004). Where is place branding heading? Place Branding, 1(1), 12–35.

  122. Kotler, P., Burton, S., Adam, S., Brown, L., & Armstrong, G. (2007). Marketing. Pearson Education Australia.

  123. Kovaleva, A., Epstein, M., & Parik, I. (2018). National heritage branding: A case study of the Russian Museum of Ethnography. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 13(2), 128–142.

  124. Kumar, V. (2016). Examining the role of destination personality and self-congruity in predicting tourist behavior. Tourism Management Perspectives, 20, 217–227.

  125. Kumar, V., & Kaushik, A. K. (2017). Achieving destination advocacy and destination loyalty through destination brand identification. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(9), 1247–1260.

  126. Kye‐Sung Chon, (1992) The role of destination image in tourism: An extension. The Tourist Review 47 (1):2-8

  127. Lemmetyinen, A., Go, F., & Luonila, M. (2013). The relevance of cultural production–Pori jazz–in boosting place brand equity. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 9(3), 164–181.

  128. Lichrou, M., O'malley, L., & Patterson, M. (2010). Narratives of a tourism destination: Local particularities and their implications for place marketing and branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(2), 134–144.

  129. Lindblom, A., Lindblom, T., Lehtonen, M. J., & Wechtler, H. (2018). A study on country images, destination beliefs, and travel intentions: A structural equation model approach. International Journal of Tourism Research, 20(1), 1–10.

  130. Lindstedt, J. (2011). Place, identity and the socially responsible construction of place brands. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 7(1), 42–49.

  131. Low, S. M., & Altman, I. (1992). Place attachment. In Place attachment (pp. 1–12). Boston: Springer.

  132. Lucarelli, A. (2018). Co-branding public place brands: Towards an alternative approach to place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 1–12.

  133. Lucarelli, A., & Brorström, S. (2013). Problematising place branding research: A meta-theoretical analysis of the literature. The Marketing Review, 13(1), 65–81.

  134. Lucarelli, A., & Olof Berg, P. (2011). City branding: A state-of-the-art review of the research domain. Journal of Place Management and Development, 4(1), 9–27.

  135. MacKay, K. J., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (1997). Pictorial element of destination in image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(3), 537–565.

  136. Maheshwari, V., Vandewalle, I., & Bamber, D. (2011). Place branding's role in sustainable development. Journal of Place Management and Development, 4(2), 198–213.

  137. Mak, A. K. (2011). An identity-centered approach to place branding: Case of industry partners’ evaluation of Iowa's destination image. Journal of Brand Management, 18(6), 438–450.

  138. Mayes, R. (2008). A place in the sun: The politics of place, identity and branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(2), 124–135.

  139. Mazaneg, J. A., & Alkier, W. (1984). Tourism planning in highly developed mountain areas: Recommended methodology. Tourism Recreation Research, 9(2), 7–14.

  140. McCamley, C., & Gilmore, A. (2018). Strategic marketing planning for heritage tourism: A conceptual model and empirical findings from two emerging heritage regions. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 26(2), 156–173.

  141. McEnally, M., & De Chernatony, L. (1999). The evolving nature of branding: Consumer and managerial considerations. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 2(1), 1–16.

  142. Metaxas, T. (2010). Place marketing, place branding and foreign direct investments: Defining their relationship in the frame of local economic development process. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(3), 228–243.

  143. Mettepenningen, E., Vandermeulen, V., Van Huylenbroeck, G., Schuermans, N., Van Hecke, E., Messely, L., et al. (2012). Exploring synergies between place branding and agricultural landscape management as a rural development practice. Sociologia Ruralis, 52(4), 432–452.

  144. Mihalič, T. (2000). Environmental management of a tourist destination: A factor of tourism competitiveness. Tourism Management, 21(1), 65–78.

  145. Milman, A., & Pizam, A. (1995). The role of awareness and familiarity with a destination: The Central Florida case. Journal of Travel Research, 33(3), 21–27.

  146. Min Han, C. (1990). Testing the role of country image in consumer choice behaviour. European Journal of Marketing, 24(6), 24–40.

  147. Mittilä, T., & Lepistö, T. (2013). The role of artists in place branding: A case study. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 9(3), 143–153.

  148. Moilanen, T., & Rainisto, S. (2009). How to brand cities, nations and destinations: A planning book for place branding.

  149. Morgan, N. J., Pritchard, A., & Piggott, R. (2003). Destination branding and the role of the stakeholders: The case of New Zealand. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(3), 285–299.

  150. Niedomysl, T., & Jonasson, M. (2012). Towards a theory of place marketing. Journal of Place Management and Development, 5(3), 223–230.

  151. O’Leary, S., & Deegan, J. (2003). People, pace, place: Qualitative and quantitative images of Ireland as a tourism destination in France. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(3), 213–226.

  152. Oğuztimur, S. (2017). Modeling a City’s branding tools: The case of Istanbul. In Advancing Insights on Brand Management. InTech.

  153. Oguztimur, S., & Akturan, U. (2016). Synthesis of city branding literature (1988–2014) as a research domain. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(4), 357–372.

  154. Ooi, C. S. (2008). Reimagining Singapore as a creative nation: The politics of place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(4), 287–302.

  155. Oppermann, M. (1999). Predicting destination choice—A discussion of destination loyalty. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 5(1), 51–65.

  156. Oppermann, M. (2000). Tourism destination loyalty. Journal of Travel Research, 39(1), 78–84.

  157. Pant, D. R. (2005). A place brand strategy for the Republic of Armenia:‘quality of context’and ‘sustainability’as competitive advantage. Place branding, 1(3), 273–282.

  158. Papadimitriou, D., Apostolopoulou, A., & Kaplanidou, K. (2015). Destination personality, affective image, and behavioral intentions in domestic urban tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 54(3), 302–315.

  159. Papadimitriou, D., Kaplanidou, K., & Apostolopoulou, A. (2018). Destination image components and word-of-mouth intentions in urban tourism: A multigroup approach. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(4), 503–527.

  160. Papadopoulos, N., & Heslop, L. (2002). Country equity and country branding: Problems and prospects. Journal of brand management, 9(4), 294-314.

  161. Papadopoulos, N. (2004). Place branding: Evolution, meaning and implications. Place branding, 1(1), 36–49.

  162. Pedersen, S. B. (2004). Place branding: Giving the region of Øresund a competitive edge. Journal of Urban Technology, 11(1), 77–95.

  163. Peel, D., & Lloyd, M. G. (2007). Towards another place? The regulation of artwork and place re-branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3(4), 268–279.

  164. Peel, D., & Lloyd, G. (2008). New communicative challenges: Dundee, place branding and the reconstruction of a city image. Town Planning Review, 79(5), 507–532.

  165. Pigman, G. A. (2012). Public diplomacy, place branding and investment promotion in ambiguous sovereignty situations: The Cook Islands as a best practice case. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(1), 17–29.

  166. Pike, S. (2009). Destination brand positions of a competitive set of near-home destinations. Tourism Management, 30(6), 857–866.

  167. Pike, S., & Page, S. J. (2014). Destination marketing organizations and destination marketing: A narrative analysis of the literature. Tourism Management, 41, 202–227.

  168. Porter, N. (2013). “Single-minded, compelling, and unique”: Visual communications, landscape, and the calculated aesthetic of place branding. Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture, 7(2), 231–254.

  169. Prayag, G., Hosany, S., Muskat, B., & Del Chiappa, G. (2017). Understanding the relationships between tourists’ emotional experiences, perceived overall image, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. Journal of Travel Research, 56(1), 41–54.

  170. Pryor, S., & Grossbart, S. (2007). Creating meaning on main street: Towards a model of place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3(4), 291–304.

  171. Ram, Y., Björk, P., & Weidenfeld, A. (2016). Authenticity and place attachment of major visitor attractions. Tourism Management, 52, 110–122.

  172. Rein, I., & Shields, B. (2007). Place branding sports: Strategies for differentiating emerging, transitional, negatively viewed and newly industrialised nations. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3(1), 73–85.

  173. Ren, C., & Blichfeldt, B. S. (2011). One clear image? Challenging simplicity in place branding. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(4), 416–434.

  174. Rizzi, P., & Dioli, I. (2010). Strategic planning, place marketing and city branding: The Italian case. Journal of Town & City Management, 1(3), 300–317.

  175. Ruzzier, M. K., & De Chernatony, L. (2013). Developing and applying a place brand identity model: The case of Slovenia. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 45–52.

  176. Ryan, M. M., & Mizerski, K. (2010). Place branding for sustainable futures: A case study. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(1), 49–57.

  177. Ryu, J. S., & Swinney, J. (2013). Branding Smallville: Community place brand communication and business owner perceptions of performance in small town America. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 9(2), 98–108.

  178. Sarabia-Sanchez, F. J., & Cerda-Bertomeu, M. J. (2017). Place brand developers’ perceptions of brand identity, brand architecture and neutrality in place brand development. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 13(1), 51–64.

  179. Sarabia-Sanchez, F. J., & Cerda-Bertomeu, M. J. (2018). Expert stakeholders’ expectations of how the public sector should act in place branding projects. Journal of Place Management and Development, 11(1), 78–96.

  180. Sautter, E. T., & Leisen, B. (1999). Managing stakeholders a tourism planning model. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), 312–328.

  181. Scott, D. R., Schewl, C. D., & Frederick, D. G. (1978). A multi-brand/multi-attribute model of tourist state choice. Journal of Travel Research, 17(1), 23–29.

  182. Sevin, E. (2011). Thinking about place branding: Ethics of concept. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 7(3), 155–164.

  183. Sevin, E. (2013). Places going viral: Twitter usage patterns in destination marketing and place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 6(3), 227–239.

  184. Shams, S. R. (2016). Branding destination image: A stakeholder causal scope analysis for internationalisation of destinations. Tourism Planning & Development, 13(2), 140–153.

  185. Skinner, H. (2005). Wish you were here? Some problems associated with integrating marketing communications when promoting place brands. Place Branding, 1(3), 299–315.

  186. Skinner, H. (2008). The emergence and development of place marketing's confused identity. Journal of Marketing Management, 24(9–10), 915–928.

  187. Skinner, H. (2011). In search of the genius IOCI: The essence of a place brand. The Marketing Review, 11(3), 281–292.

  188. Skinner, H., & Kubacki, K. (2007). Unravelling the complex relationship between nationhood, national and cultural identity, and place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3(4), 305–316.

  189. Sneed, C. T., Runyan, R., Swinney, J. L., & Lim, H. J. (2011). Brand, business mix, sense-of-place: Do they matter downtown? Journal of Place Management and Development, 4(2), 121–134.

  190. Stepchenkova, S., & Shichkova, E. (2017). Country and destination image domains of a place: Framework for quantitative comparison. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 776–792.

  191. Stephens Balakrishnan, M. (2008). Dubai–a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 1(1), 62–91.

  192. Stephens Balakrishnan, M. (2009). Strategic branding of destinations: A framework. European Journal of Marketing, 43(5/6), 611–629.

  193. Stylidis, D. (2018). Residents' place image: A cluster analysis and its links to place attachment and support for tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(6), 1007–1026.

  194. Stylidis, D., & Cherifi, B. (2018). Characteristics of destination image: Visitors and non-visitors’ images of London. Tourism Review, 73(1), 55–67.

  195. Van Ham, P. (2001). The rise of the brand state: The postmodern politics of image and reputation. Foreign affairs, 2-6.

  196. Stylidis, D., Sit, J., & Biran, A. (2016). An exploratory study of residents’ perception of place image: The case of Kavala. Journal of Travel Research, 55(5), 659–674.

  197. Stylidis, D., Kokho Sit, J., & Biran, A. (2018). Residents’ place image: A meaningful psychographic variable for tourism segmentation? Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 1–11.

  198. Stylos, N., Bellou, V., Andronikidis, A., & Vassiliadis, C. A. (2017). Linking the dots among destination images, place attachment, and revisit intentions: A study among British and Russian tourists. Tourism Management, 60, 15–29.

  199. Sulaiman, M. Z., & Wilson, R. (2018). Translating tourism promotional materials: A cultural-conceptual model. Perspectives, 1–17.

  200. Taha, D. A. (2013). Place identity of egyptian cities: Learning from the past, branding for the future. ACE: architecture, city and environment, 7(21), 97–116.

  201. Tantawi, P., & Youssef, A. (2012). The importance of corporate social performance in place branding of retail banks in Egypt. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 3(1), 77–94.

  202. Therkelsen, A., & Halkier, H. (2008). Contemplating place branding umbrellas. The case of coordinated national tourism and business promotion in Denmark. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 8(2), 159–175.

  203. Tobias, S., & Wahl, P. M. (2013). Can place branding support landscape conservation in city-regions? A case study from Switzerland. Land Use Policy, 30(1), 266–275.

  204. Van Assche, K., & Lo, M. C. (2011). Planning, preservation and place branding: A tale of sharing assets and narratives. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 7(2), 116–126.

  205. Van Ham, P. (2008a). Place branding: The state of the art. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), 126–149.

  206. Van Ham, P. (2008b). Place branding within a security paradigm—Concepts and cases. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(3), 240–251.

  207. Vela, J. D. S. E. (2013). The relationship between place branding and environmental communication: The symbolic management of places through the use of brands. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 9(4), 254–263.

  208. Vollero, A., Conte, F., Bottoni, G., & Siano, A. (2018). The influence of community factors on the engagement of residents in place promotion: Empirical evidence from an Italian heritage site. International Journal of Tourism Research, 20(1), 88–99.

  209. Vuignier, R. (2017). Place branding & place marketing 1976–2016: A multidisciplinary literature review. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 14(4), 447–473.

  210. Vuorinen, M., & Vos, M. (2013). Challenges in joint place branding in rural regions. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 9(3), 154–163.

  211. Warren, G., & Dinnie, K. (2017). Exploring the dimensions of place branding: An application of the ICON model to the branding of Toronto. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 3(1), 56–68.

  212. Wills, D., & Moore, C. (2008). Securitising the Caucasus: From political violence to place branding in Chechnya. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(3), 252–262.

  213. W Olins, (2002) Branding the nation — the historical context. Journal of Brand Management 9 (4):241-248

  214. Wong, P. P. W. (2018). Role of components of destination competitiveness in the relationship between customer-based brand equity and destination loyalty. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(5), 504–528.

  215. Yang, Y., Liu, X., & Li, J. (2015). How customer experience affects the customer-based brand equity for tourism destinations. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 32(sup1), S97–S113.

  216. Zakarevičius, P., & Lionikaitė, J. (2013). An initial framework for understanding the concept of internal place branding. Organizacijų vadyba: sisteminiai tyrimai, 2013(nr. 67), 143–160.

  217. Zavattaro, S. M., Daspit, J. J., & Adams, F. G. (2015). Assessing managerial methods for evaluating place brand equity: A qualitative investigation. Tourism Management, 47, 11–21.

  218. Zenker, S. (2009). Who's your target? The creative class as a target group for place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 2(1), 23–32.

  219. Zenker, S. (2011). How to catch a city? The concept and measurement of place brands. Journal of Place Management and Development, 4(1), 40–52.

  220. Zenker, S., & Beckmann, S. C. (2013a). Measuring brand image effects of flagship projects for place brands: The case of Hamburg. Journal of Brand Management, 20(8), 642–655.

  221. Zenker, S., & Beckmann, S. C. (2013b). My place is not your place–different place brand knowledge by different target groups. Journal of Place Management and Development, 6(1), 6–17.

  222. Zenker, S., & Braun, E. (2010, June). The place brand Centre–a conceptual approach for the brand management of places. In 39th European Marketing Academy Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark (pp. 1-8).

  223. Zenker, S., & Braun, E. (2017). Questioning a “one size fits all” city brand: Developing a branded house strategy for place brand management. Journal of Place Management and Development, 10(3), 270–287.

  224. Zenker, S., & Martin, N. (2011). Measuring success in place marketing and branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 7(1), 32–41.

  225. Zenker, S., & Rütter, N. (2014). Is satisfaction the key? The role of citizen satisfaction, place attachment and place brand attitude on positive citizenship behavior. Cities, 38, 11–17.

  226. Zenker, S., Braun, E., & Petersen, S. (2017). Branding the destination versus the place: The effects of brand complexity and identification for residents and visitors. Tourism Management, 58, 15–27.

  227. Zevedo, A. (2004). Image transference from product branding to place branding: The case study of Marinha Grande Mglass. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 1(2), 101–111.

  228. Zhang, J., Wu, B., Morrison, A. M., Tseng, C., & Chen, Y. C. (2018). How country image affects tourists’ destination evaluations: A moderated mediation approach. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(6), 904–930.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Navin Kumar.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kumar, N., Panda, R.K. Place branding and place marketing: a contemporary analysis of the literature and usage of terminology. Int Rev Public Nonprofit Mark 16, 255–292 (2019).

Download citation


  • Place branding
  • Place marketing
  • Destination branding
  • City brand
  • Literature review