Scale development research in nonprofit management & marketing: a content analysis and recommendation for best practices

Original Article


The authors report a content analysis on scale development studies in nonprofit management and marketing. The authors analyze and discuss characteristics of the procedures used in these studies with respect to construct conceptualization, the relationship between construct and measurement model, item generation and refinement, sampling, analysis, and reporting. A variety of practices in this body of research were at variance with the current scale development literature. The authors include recommendations for best practices in further research.


Scale development Nonprofit management Nonprofit marketing EFA CFA 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada
  2. 2.University of Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal

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