Factor analysis for an institutional image instrument

  • Ashraf Ahmad Zaghloul
  • Yaseen Ahmed Hayajneh
  • Amina AlMarzouki
Original Article

Abstract

Higher education environments have become increasingly competitive and institutions have to compete for students in the recruitment markets. Institutional image is considered a cornerstone which influences the students’ choice for an academic institution. The purpose of this study aimed at developing a valid and reliable instrument for institutional image to aid in marketing efforts performed at the University of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates. Students of the College of Health Sciences at the University of Sharjah were approached in the study. Two hundred and twenty two (222) students voluntarily participated in the study which involved a survey questionnaire based on a five point Likert scale for 18 items included on the questionnaire related to academic institutional image. Principal component analysis using varimax rotation was used for questionnaire validation and categorization of resulting factors. Reliability tests were performed to assess the reliability of the items included in the questionnaire. Tests included test-retest reliability, Cronbach alpha, and split-half reliability coefficients. The image instrument includes the general items stated in the literature as well as items relevant to the University of Sharjah indicating the distinctiveness of the image to be used for marketing activities on behalf of the university.

Keywords

Higher education Institutional image Factor analysis Instrument 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The research would like to extend their appreciation to the University of Sharjah for supporting this research study which was funded through the seed grant program adopted by the university for faculty members.

References

  1. Alessandri S (2001) Modeling Corp identity: a concept explication and theoretical explanation. Corp Comm Int J 6(4):173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali-Choudhury R, Bennett R, Savani S (2009) University marketing directors’ views on the components of a university brand. Int Rev Public Nonprofit Mark 6(1):11–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arpan LM, Raney AA, Zivnuska S (2003) A cognitive approach to understanding university image. Corp Comm Int J 8(2):97–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barich H, Kotler P (1991) A framework for marketing image management. Sloan Manage Rev 32(2):94–104Google Scholar
  5. Cottle DW (1988) How firms can develop and project a winning image. Pract Account 21:46–50Google Scholar
  6. Dowling GR (1986) Managing your corporate images. Ind Mark Manage 15:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Duarte PO, Alves HB, Raposo MB (2010) Understanding university image: a structural equation model approach. Int Rev Public Nonprofit Mark 7:21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gray ER, Smeltzer LR (1987) Planning a face-lift: implementing a corporate image. J Bus Strategy 8:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hemsley-Brown J, Goonawardana S (2007) Brand harmonization in the international higher education market. J Bus Res 60:942–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hemsley-Brown JV, Oplatka I (2006) Universities in a competitive global marketplace. A systematic review of the literature on higher education marketing. Int J Public Sect Manag 19(4):316–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ivy J (2001) Higher education institution image: a correspondence analysis approach. Int J Educ Manag 15(6):276–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kazoleas D, Kim Y, Moffitt MA (2001) Institutional image: a case study. Corp Comm Int J 6(4):205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kennedy SH (1977) Nurturing institutional image. Eur J Mark 11(3):120–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Landrum R, Turrisi HC (1998) University image: the benefits of assessment and modeling. J Mark High Educ 9(1):53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Luque-Martinez T, Del Barrio-Garcia S (2009) Modelling university image: the teaching staff viewpoint. Public Relat Rev 35(3):325–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. MacInnis DJ, Price LL (1987) The role of imagery information processing: review and extensions. J Consum Res 13:47–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Maringe F (2006) University and course choice. Int J Educ Manag 20:466–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nguyen N, LeBlanc G (2001) Image and reputation of higher education institutions in students’ retention decisions. Int J Educ Manag 15(6):303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Norman GR, Streiner DL (1998) Biostatistics, the bare essentials. B.C. Decker Inc., Hamilton, pp 129–142Google Scholar
  20. Russell M (2005) Marketing education. A review of service quality perceptions among international students. Int J Contemp Hosp Manag 17(1):65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Theus KT (1993) Academic reputations: the process of formation and decay. Public Relat Rev 19(3):277–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Weissman J (1990) Institutional image assessment and modification in colleges and universities. J High Educ Manag 6(1):65–75Google Scholar
  23. Yuille JC, Catchpole MJ (1977) The role of imagery in models of cognition. J Ment Imag 1:171–180Google Scholar
  24. Zaghloul AA (2001) Validation of a patient satisfaction scale for primary care settings. J Egypt Public Health Assoc LXXVI:411–429Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashraf Ahmad Zaghloul
    • 1
  • Yaseen Ahmed Hayajneh
    • 1
  • Amina AlMarzouki
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Health Services AdministrationUniversity of SharjahSharjahUnited Arab Emirates
  2. 2.Health Authority of DubaiDubaiUnited Arab Emirates

Personalised recommendations