Psychological Injury and Law

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 62–85 | Cite as

The MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS) Is an Empirically Validated Measure of Overreporting in Personal Injury Litigants and Claimants: Reply to Butcher et al. (2008)

  • Yossef S. Ben-Porath
  • Kevin W. Greve
  • Kevin J. Bianchini
  • Paul M. Kaufmann
Article

Abstract

We address issues raised by Butcher et al. (Psychological Injury and the Law 1:191–209, 2008) in their critique of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS) and show that their analyses and conclusions are based on faulty premises, a misunderstanding of basic concepts in the assessment of overreporting, a selective review of the literature and mischaracterization of the findings they do cite, problematic analyses of a dataset that had already been similarly analyzed, and a flawed analysis of a legal case they discuss. We complement the review of existing research with some new findings that provide further empirical support and clarification of current interpretive recommendations for proper use of the FBS in evaluations of personal injury litigants and claimants.

Notes

Disclosure

Yossef Ben-Porath is a paid consultant to the publisher of the MMPI instruments, the University of Minnesota Press, and their distributor, Pearson. He receives royalties on sales of the MMPI-2-RF.

References

  1. Ardolf, B. R., Denney, R. L., & Houston, C. M. (2007). Base rates of negative response bias and malingered neurocognitive dysfunction among criminal defendants referred for neuropsychological evaluation. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21, 899–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, D. (2008). Malingerer test roils personal-injury law: “Fake Bad Scale” bars real victims, its critics contend. The Wall Street Journal, p. A1.Google Scholar
  3. Barr, W. B. (2005). Rates of invalid MMPI-2 responding in patients with epileptic and nonepileptic seizures. Poster session presented at the American Epilepsy Society annual meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  4. Belanger, H. G., Curtiss, G., Demery, J. A., Lebowitz, B. K., & Vanderploeg, R. D. (2005). Factors moderating neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 215–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ben-Porath, Y.S. and Tellegen, A. (2007). MMPI-2 FBS (Symptom Validity) Scale. Retrieved June 16, 2008 from http://www.pearsonassessments.com/resources/fbs.htm.
  6. Ben-Porath, Y. S., Tellegen, A., & Graham, J. R. (2009). The MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bianchini, K. J., Curtis, K. L., & Greve, K. W. (2006). Compensation and malingering in traumatic brain injury: A dose–response relationship? The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 20, 831–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bianchini, K. J., Etherton, J. L., Greve, K. W., Heinly, M. T., & Meyers, J. E. (2008). Classification accuracy of MMPI-2 Validity Scales in the detection of pain-related malingering: A known-groups approach. Assessment, 15, 435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bianchini, K. J., Greve, K. W., & Love, J. M. (2003). Definite malingered neurocognitive dysfunction in moderate/severe traumatic brain injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 17, 574–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bianchini, K. J., Greve, K. W., & Glynn, G. (2005). On the diagnosis of malingered pain-related disability: Lessons from cognitive malingering research. The Spine Journal, 5, 404–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Binder, L. M., & Rohling, M. L. (1996). Money matters: A meta-analytic review of the effects of financial incentives on recovery after closed-head injury. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Binder, L. M., Rohling, M. L., & Larrabee, G. (1997). A review of mild head trauma. Part I: Meta-analytic review of neuropsychological studies. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 19, 421–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bury, A. S., & Bagby, R. M. (2002). The detection of feigned uncoached and coached posttraumatic stress disorder with the MMPI-2 in a sample of workplace accident victims. Psychological Assessment, 14, 472–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butcher, J. N. (1998). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) user’s guide for the Minnesota Report: Reports for forensic settings. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.Google Scholar
  15. Butcher, J. N. (2001). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) user’s guide for the The Minnesota Report: Revised personnel system (3rd ed.). Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.Google Scholar
  16. Butcher, J. N., & Han, K. (1995). Development of an MMPI-2 scale to assess the presentation of self in a superlative manner: The S scale. In J. N. Butcher, & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in personality assessment (vol. 10, (pp. 25–50)). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  17. Butcher, J. N., & Williams, C. L. (2000). Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A interpretation (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  18. Butcher, J. N., & Perry, J. N. (2008). Personality assessment in treatment planning: Use of the MMPI-2 and BTPI. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Butcher, J. N., Dahlstrom, W. G., Graham, J. R., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (1989). Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 (MMPI-2): Manual for administration and scoring. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  20. Butcher, J. N., Graham, J. R., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Tellegen, A., Dahlstrom, W. G., & Kaemmer, B. (2001). MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2): Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation, revised edition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  21. Butcher, J. N., Arbisi, P. A., Atlis, M. M., & McNulty, J. L. (2003). The construct validity of the Lees-Haley Fake-Bad Scale (FBS): Does this scale measure somatic malingering and feigned emotional distress? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 473–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Butcher, J. N., Gass, C. S., Cumella, E., Kally, Z., & Williams, C. L. (2008). Potential bias in MMPI-2 assessments using the Fake Bad Scale (FBS). Psychological Injury and the Law, 1, 191–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carroll, L. J., Cassidy, J. D., Peloso, P. M., et al. (2004). Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: Results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, (43 Suppl), 84–105.Google Scholar
  24. Chafetz, M. D. (2008). Malingering on the social security disability consultative exam: Predictors and base rates. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 22, 529–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Creager, R. T., Shea, J. C., & Larner, G. P. (2002). Role of defense neuropsychologists should be limited under Virginia evidence law. The Journal of the Virginia Trial Lawyers Association, 14, 24–32, Fall.Google Scholar
  27. Daubert v. Merrill Dow Pharm., Inc., 509 U.S. 589–95 (U.S. 1993).Google Scholar
  28. Frye v. United States, 509 U.S. 579 (D.C. Cir. 1923).Google Scholar
  29. Gallop, R. J., Crits-Christop, P., Muenz, L. R., & Tu, X. M. (2003). Determination and interpretation of the optimal operating point for ROC curves derived through generalized linear models. Understanding Statistics, 2, 219–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Geisinger, K. F. (2005). The testing industry, ethnic minorities, and individuals with disabilities. In R. P. Phelps (Ed.), Defending standardized testing (pp. 187–203). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Greene, R. L. (2000). The MMPI-2: An interpretive manual (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  32. Greiffenstein, M. F., & Baker, W. J. (2001). Comparison of premorbid and postinjury MMPI-2 profiles in late postconcussion claimants. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15, 162–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Greiffenstein, M. F., Baker, W. J., Axelrod, B., Peck, E. A., & Gervais, R. (2004). The Fake Bad Scale and MMPI-2 F-family in detection of implausible psychological trauma claims. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 18, 573–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Greiffenstein, M. F., Fox, D., & Lees-Haley, P. R. (2007). The MMPI-2 fake bad scale in detection of noncredible brain injury claims. In K. Boone (Ed.), Assessment of feigned cognitive impairment: A neuropsychological perspective (pp. 210–235). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  35. Greve, K. W., & Bianchini, K. J. (2004a). Setting empirical cut-offs on psychometric indicators of negative response bias: a methodological commentary with recommendations. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 533–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Greve, K. W., & Bianchini, K. J. (2004b). Response to Butcher et al., The construct validity of the Lees-Haley Fake-bad scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 337–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Greve, K. W., Bianchini, K. J., & Ameduri, C. J. (2003). The use of a forced-choice test of tactile discrimination in the evaluation of functional sensory loss: A report of 3 cases. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 1233–1236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greve, K. W., Bianchini, K. J., Black, F. W., Heinly, M. T., Love, J. M., Swift, D. A., et al. (2006a). The prevalence of cognitive malingering in persons reporting exposure to occupational and environmental substances. NeuroToxicology, 27, 940–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Greve, K. W., Bianchini, K. J., Love, J. M., Brennan, A., & Heinly, M. T. (2006b). Sensitivity and specificity of MMPI-2 Validity Scales and indicators to malingered neurocognitive dysfunction in traumatic brain injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 20, 491–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greve, K. W., Ord, J., Curtis, K. L., Bianchini, K. J., & Brennan, A. (2008). Detecting malingering in traumatic brain injury and chronic pain: A comparison of three forced-choice symptom validity tests. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 22, 896–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Greve, K. W., Ord, J. S., Bianchini, K. J., & Curtis, K. L. (in press). The prevalence of malingering in chronic pain patients referred for psychological evaluation in a medico-legal context. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation.Google Scholar
  42. Guez, M., Brannstrom, R., Nyberg, L., Toolanen, G., & Hildingsson, C. (2005). Neuropsychological functioning and MMPI-2 profiles in chronic neck pain: A comparison of whiplash and non-traumatic groups. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27, 151–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harris, I., Mulford, J., Solomon, M., van Gelder, J. M., & Young, J. (2005). Association between compensation status and outcome after surgery: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 1644–1652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1942). A multiphasic personality schedule (Minnesota): III. The measurement of symptomatic depression. Journal of Psychology, 14, 73–84.Google Scholar
  45. Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1943). The Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (Rev. ed., 2nd printing.). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1951). Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory; manual (Revised). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  47. Iverson, G. L. (2003). Detecting malingering in civil forensic evaluations. In A. M. Horton, & L. C. Hartlage (Eds.), Handbook of forensic neuropsychology (pp. 137–177). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. Iverson, G. L., & McCracken, L. M. (1997). ‘Postconcussive’ symptoms in persons with chronic pain. Brain Injury, 11, 783–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kay, N. R., & Morris-Jones, H. (1998). Pain clinic management of medico-legal litigants. Injury, 29, 305–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Larrabee, G. J. (1998). Somatic malingering on the MMPI and MMPI-2 in personal injury litigants. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 12, 179–188.Google Scholar
  51. Larrabee, G. J. (2003). Exaggerated MMPI-2 symptom report in personal injury litigants with Malingered Neurocognitive Deficit. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 673–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Larrabee, G. J. (2005). Assessment of malingering. In G. J. Larrabee (Ed.), Forensic Neuropsychology (pp. 115–158). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Larrabee, G. J., Greiffenstein, M. F., Greve, K. W., & Bianchini, K. J. (2007). Refining diagnostic criteria for malingering. In G. J. Larrabee (Ed.), Assessment of malingered neuropsychological deficits (pp. 334–371). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Lees-Haley, P. R. (1992). Efficacy of MMPI-2 validity scales and MCMI-II modifier scales for detecting spurious PTSD claims: F, F-K, Fake Bad Scale, ego strength, subtle-obvious subscales, DIS, and DEB. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 681–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lees-Haley, P. R., English, L. T., & Glenn, W. J. (1991). A fake bad scale on the MMPI-2 for personal injury claimants. Psychological Reports, 68, 203–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mckinney-Prude v. Detroit Board of Education, (May 16, 2007 Order) Workers Compensation Board of Magistrates.Google Scholar
  57. Meehl, P. E., & Hathaway, S. R. (1946). The K factor as a suppressor variable in the MMPI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 30, 525–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meyers, J. E., Millis, S. R., & Volkert, K. (2002). A validity index for the MMPI-2. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 157–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Meyers, J. E., & Rohling, M. L. (2004). Validation of the Meyers Short Battery on mild TBI patients. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 637–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mittenberg, W., Patton, C., Canyock, E. M., & Condit, D. C. (2002). Base rates of malingering and symptom exaggeration. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 1094–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moore v. Daimler Chrysler Corp., (February 16, 2007 Order) Workers Compensation Board of Magistrates.Google Scholar
  62. Nason v. Shafranski, (September 11, 2008 Ruling), Florida 19th Circuit, St. Lucie County.Google Scholar
  63. Nelson, N. W., Parsons, T. D., Grote, C. L., Smith, C. A., & Sisung 2nd., J. R. (2006). The MMPI-2 Fake Bad Scale: concordance and specificity of true and estimated scores. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28, 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pope, K. S., Butcher, J. N., & Seelen, J. (2006). MMOI/MMPI-2/MMPI-A in court: Assessment, testimony, and cross-examination for experts and attorneys. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  65. Public Attitude Monitor. (1992). (Survey). Oak Brook, IL: Insurance Research Council.Google Scholar
  66. Public Attitude Monitor. (1993). (Survey). Oak Brook, IL: Insurance Research Council.Google Scholar
  67. Rainville, J., Sobel, J. B., Hartigan, C., & Wright, A. (1997). The effect of compensation involvement on the reporting of pain and disability by patients referred for rehabilitation of chronic low back pain. Spine, 22, 2016–2024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rohling, M. L., Binder, L. M., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (1995). A metal-analytic review of the association between financial compensation and the experience and treatment of chronic pain. Health Psychology, 14, 537–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ross, S. R., Millis, S. R., Krukowski, R. A., Putnam, S. H., & Adams, K. M. (2004). Detecting incomplete effort on the MMPI-2: an examination of the Fake-Bad Scale in mild head injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 26, 115–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sharland, M. J., & Gfeller, J. D. (2007). A survey of neuropsychologists’ beliefs and practices with respect to the assessment of effort. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 213–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Slick, D. J., Sherman, E. M. S., & Iverson, G. L. (1999). Diagnostic criteria for malingering neurocognitive dysfunction: Proposed standards for clinical practice and research. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 13, 545–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Solomon v. TK Power, Case 06-CA-003088, Florida 4th Circuit, Duval County.Google Scholar
  73. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed.). NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Su, J. C., & Birmingham, C. L. (2003). Anorexia nervosa: The cost of long-term disability. Eating and Weight Disorders, 8, 76–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Tsanadis, J., Montoya, E., Hanks, R. A., Millis, S. R., Fichtenberg, N. L., & Axelrod, B. N. (2008). Brain injury severity, litigation status, and self-report of postconcussive symptoms. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 22, 1080–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tsushima, W. T., & Tsushima, V. G. (2001). Comparison of the Fake Bad Scale and other MMPI-2 validity scales with personal injury litigants. Assessment, 8, 205–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Upchurch v. Broward Co. School Bd. (2008) January 24, 2008 Deposition of Dr. James N. Butcher, Florida 15th Circuit, Broward County.Google Scholar
  78. United States v. Bitton (July 1, 2008 Memorandum Decision and Order) Case No. 2:05-CR-661 TS United States District Court of Utah, Central DivisionGoogle Scholar
  79. Vaccaro, A. R., Ring, D., Scuderi, G., Cohen, D. S., & Garfin, S. R. (1997). Predictors of outcome in patients with chronic back pain and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Spine, 22, 2030–2034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vandergracht v. Progressive Express No. 02-04552 (Fla. Cir. Ct. Hillsborough County, March 9, 2005).Google Scholar
  81. Williams v. CSX Transportation, Inc. (Sept 19, 2007 Order).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yossef S. Ben-Porath
    • 1
  • Kevin W. Greve
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kevin J. Bianchini
    • 2
    • 3
  • Paul M. Kaufmann
    • 4
  1. 1.Kent State UniversityKentUSA
  2. 2.University of New OrleansNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.Jefferson Neurobehavioral GroupMetairieUSA
  4. 4.University of NebraskaLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations