Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effect of deposition orientations on dimensional and mechanical properties of the thin-walled structure fabricated by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding-based additive manufacturing process

  • 55 Accesses

Abstract

Welding-based additive manufacturing can potentially produce a cost-effective process for the production of dense metallic parts. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding-based additive manufacturing process uses wire as a filler material and offers a high deposition rate with low spattering. In this study, different orientations of wire feeding nozzle and TIG welding torch, such as front wire feeding (FWF), back wire feeding (BWF), and side wire feeding (SWF), were investigated for thin-walled metal deposition with enhanced dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties. The dimensional accuracy of thin-walls deposited at four different orientations were investigated in terms of deposition height and deposition width. The FWF orientation with higher wire feeding angle and SWF orientation produced poor dimensional accuracy in the deposition. FWF orientation with normal wire feeding angle and BWF orientation provided a decent dimensional accuracy and surface appearance. The deposited samples exhibited a similar trend for Vickers microhardness, residual stress, and microstructure for the four different wire feeding orientations.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

TIG :

Tungsten inert gas welding

FWFNA :

Front wire feeding with normal wire feeding angle

FWFHA :

Front wire feeding with higher wire feeding angle

BWF :

Back wire feeding

SWF :

Side wire feeding

σxx :

Transverse stress

σyy :

Longitudinal stress

σzz :

Normal stress

σhydrostatic stress :

Hydrostatic residual stress

References

  1. [1]

    D. Ding, Z. Pan, S. V. Duin, H. Li and C. Shen, Fabricating superior NiAl bronze components through wire arc additive manufacturing, Materials, 9 (8) (2016) 652.

  2. [2]

    A. Simchi, F. Petzoldt and H. Pohl, On the development of direct metal laser sintering for rapid tooling, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 141 (3) (2003) 319–328.

  3. [3]

    W. Liu and J. N. DuPont, Fabrication of functionally graded TiC/Ti composites by laser engineered net shaping, Scr. Mater, 48 (9) (2003) 1337–1342.

  4. [4]

    N. C. Ferreri, S. Ghorbanpour, S. Bhowmik, R. Lussier, J. Bicknell, B. M. Patterson and M. Knezevic, Effects of build orientation and heat treatment on the evolution of micro-structure and mechanical properties of alloy Mar-M-509 fabricated via laser powder bed fusion, Int. J. Plast., 121 (2019) 116–133.

  5. [5]

    B. Fotovvati and E. Asadi, Size effects on geometrical accuracy for additive manufacturing of Ti-6AI-4V ELI parts, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 104 (5–8) (2019) 2951–2959.

  6. [6]

    D. Ding, Z. Pan, D. Cuiuri and H. Li, Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: Technologies, developments and future interests, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 81 (1–4) (2015) 465–481.

  7. [7]

    J. Xiong and G. Zhang, Adaptive control of deposited height in GMAW-based layer additive manufacturing, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 214 (4) (2014) 962–968.

  8. [8]

    Y. Li, J. Xiong and Z. Yin, Molten pool stability of thin-wall parts in robotic GMA-based additive manufacturing with various position depositions, Robot. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 56 (2019) 1–11.

  9. [9]

    X. Lu, Y. F. Zhou, X. L. Xing, L. Y. Shao, Q. X. Yang and S. Y. Gao, Open-source wire and arc additive manufacturing system: Formability, microstructures, and mechanical properties, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 93 (5–8) (2017) 2145–2154.

  10. [10]

    F. Martina, M. J. Roy, B. A. Szost, S. Terzi, P. A. Colegrove, S. W. Williams, P. J. Wthers, J. Meyer and M. Hofmann, Residual stress of as-deposited and rolled wire+arc additive manufacturing Ti-6AI-4V components, Mater. Sci. Technol. (United Kingdom), 32 (14) (2016) 1439–1448.

  11. [11]

    J. R. Honnige, P. A. Colegrove, S. Ganguly, E. Eimer, S. Kabra and S. Williams, Control of residual stress and distortion in aluminium wire + arc additive manufacture with rolling, Addit. Manuf., 22 (2018) 775–783.

  12. [12]

    Z. Wang, E. Denlinger, P. Michaleris, A. D. Stoica, D. Ma and A. M. Beese, Residual stress mapping in Inconel 625 fabricated through additive manufacturing: Method for neutron diffraction measurements to validate thermomechanical model predictions, Mater. Des., 113 (2017) 169–177.

  13. [13]

    W. J. Sames, F. A. List, S. Pannala, R. R. Dehoff and S. S. Babu, The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing, Int. Mater. Rev., 61 (5) (2016) 315–360.

  14. [14]

    P. Hagqvist, A. K. Christiansson and A. Heralic, Automation of a laser welding system for additive manufacturing, IEEE Int. Conf. Autom. Sci. Eng. (2015) 900–905.

  15. [15]

    Y. M. Zhang, P. Li, Y. Chen and A. T. Male, Automated system for welding-based rapid prototyping, Mechatronics, 12 (1) (2002) 37–53.

  16. [16]

    L. M. Sochalski-Kolbus, E. A. Payzant, P. A. Cornwell, T. R. Watkins, S. S. Babu, R. R. Dehoff, M. Lorenz, O. Ovchinnikova and C. Duty, Comparison of residual stresses in inconel 718 simple parts made by electron beam melting and direct laser metal sintering, Metall. Mater. Trans. A Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci., 46 (3) (2015) 1419–1432.

  17. [17]

    S. Paddea, J. A. Francis, A. M. Paradowska, P. J. Bouchard and I. A. Shibli, Residual stress distributions in a P91 steel-pipe girth weld before and after post weld heat treatment, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 534 (2012) 663–672.

  18. [18]

    P. Fu, R. Chu, Z. Xu, G. Ding and C. Jiang, Relation of hardness with FWHM and residual stress of GCr15 steel after shot peening, Appl. Surf. Sci., 431 (2018) 165–169.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are gratefully acknowledging the Central Workshop facility and financial support from Research Initiation Grant of Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India-333031.

Author information

Correspondence to Nitish P. Gokhale.

Additional information

Recommended by Editor Chongdu Cho

Prateek Kala is an Assistant Professor at BITS Pilani, India in the Mechanical Engineering Department. He obtained his Ph.D. from IIT Delhi in the Mechanical Engineering Department. He completed M. Tech. in Production and Industrial Systems Engineering from Mechanical Enqineerinq Department IIT Roorkee. He works in the area of advanced manufacturing process. He has performed experimental investigation in the area of ultrasonic drilling, magnetic abrasive finishing, and is currently working on 3D printing of metal parts using arc welding process. He has published research articles in various peer-reviewed journals in the field of advanced manufacturing and abrasive finishing.

Murali Palla worked on metallic glasses during his Ph.D. from HSc Bangalore and continued his work in IHPC Singapore as a research scientist. He has ten publications in some of the top Journals in this area. He has also published three papers on phase-field modeling of fracture in bio-composites. Currently, he has worked at BITS Pilani-Pilani Campus, Rajasthan since 2013 working as an Assistant Professor. He has expertise in atomistic modeling, mechanical testing experiments, and phase-field modelling and possesses a good understanding of the constitutive behavior of metallic glass.

Varun Sharma is an Assistant Professor at the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Mechanical Engineering Department. He obtained his Ph.D. in the field of ultrasonic-assisted turning from NT Delhi. He works in the area of Additive Manufacturing for Mechanical and biomedical application and is currently working in 3D printing of biomedical implants. He has published peer-reviewed research papers and a book chapter in various international journals and conferences.

Nitish Gokhale obtained his B.E. in Mechanical Engineering and M.Tech. in Mechatronics from VIT University Vellore, India. He is pursuing his Ph.D. in the field of Additive Manufacturing at BITS-Pilani, India. His research areas are additive manufacturing and advanced manufacturing processes.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gokhale, N.P., Kala, P., Sharma, V. et al. Effect of deposition orientations on dimensional and mechanical properties of the thin-walled structure fabricated by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding-based additive manufacturing process. J Mech Sci Technol 34, 701–709 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-020-0115-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Additive manufacturing
  • TIG welding
  • Wire feeding orientation
  • Thin-wall
  • Dimensional accuracy
  • Mechanical properties