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Effect of deposition orientations on dimensional and mechanical properties of the thin-walled structure fabricated by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding-based additive manufacturing process

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Welding-based additive manufacturing can potentially produce a cost-effective process for the production of dense metallic parts. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding-based additive manufacturing process uses wire as a filler material and offers a high deposition rate with low spattering. In this study, different orientations of wire feeding nozzle and TIG welding torch, such as front wire feeding (FWF), back wire feeding (BWF), and side wire feeding (SWF), were investigated for thin-walled metal deposition with enhanced dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties. The dimensional accuracy of thin-walls deposited at four different orientations were investigated in terms of deposition height and deposition width. The FWF orientation with higher wire feeding angle and SWF orientation produced poor dimensional accuracy in the deposition. FWF orientation with normal wire feeding angle and BWF orientation provided a decent dimensional accuracy and surface appearance. The deposited samples exhibited a similar trend for Vickers microhardness, residual stress, and microstructure for the four different wire feeding orientations.

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Tungsten inert gas welding


Front wire feeding with normal wire feeding angle


Front wire feeding with higher wire feeding angle


Back wire feeding


Side wire feeding

σxx :

Transverse stress

σyy :

Longitudinal stress

σzz :

Normal stress

σhydrostatic stress :

Hydrostatic residual stress


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The authors are gratefully acknowledging the Central Workshop facility and financial support from Research Initiation Grant of Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India-333031.

Author information

Correspondence to Nitish P. Gokhale.

Additional information

Recommended by Editor Chongdu Cho

Prateek Kala is an Assistant Professor at BITS Pilani, India in the Mechanical Engineering Department. He obtained his Ph.D. from IIT Delhi in the Mechanical Engineering Department. He completed M. Tech. in Production and Industrial Systems Engineering from Mechanical Enqineerinq Department IIT Roorkee. He works in the area of advanced manufacturing process. He has performed experimental investigation in the area of ultrasonic drilling, magnetic abrasive finishing, and is currently working on 3D printing of metal parts using arc welding process. He has published research articles in various peer-reviewed journals in the field of advanced manufacturing and abrasive finishing.

Murali Palla worked on metallic glasses during his Ph.D. from HSc Bangalore and continued his work in IHPC Singapore as a research scientist. He has ten publications in some of the top Journals in this area. He has also published three papers on phase-field modeling of fracture in bio-composites. Currently, he has worked at BITS Pilani-Pilani Campus, Rajasthan since 2013 working as an Assistant Professor. He has expertise in atomistic modeling, mechanical testing experiments, and phase-field modelling and possesses a good understanding of the constitutive behavior of metallic glass.

Varun Sharma is an Assistant Professor at the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Mechanical Engineering Department. He obtained his Ph.D. in the field of ultrasonic-assisted turning from NT Delhi. He works in the area of Additive Manufacturing for Mechanical and biomedical application and is currently working in 3D printing of biomedical implants. He has published peer-reviewed research papers and a book chapter in various international journals and conferences.

Nitish Gokhale obtained his B.E. in Mechanical Engineering and M.Tech. in Mechatronics from VIT University Vellore, India. He is pursuing his Ph.D. in the field of Additive Manufacturing at BITS-Pilani, India. His research areas are additive manufacturing and advanced manufacturing processes.

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Gokhale, N.P., Kala, P., Sharma, V. et al. Effect of deposition orientations on dimensional and mechanical properties of the thin-walled structure fabricated by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding-based additive manufacturing process. J Mech Sci Technol 34, 701–709 (2020).

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  • Additive manufacturing
  • TIG welding
  • Wire feeding orientation
  • Thin-wall
  • Dimensional accuracy
  • Mechanical properties