Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 33, Issue 8, pp 3655–3664 | Cite as

Pretreatment methods to improve the kinematic viscosity of biodiesel for use in power tiller engines

  • Duk Gam Woo
  • Tae Han KimEmail author


Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can replace diesel in compression ignition engines without changing the engine structure. Biodiesel is typically manufactured from vegetable oils and animal fats, which give the fuel its oxidation stability and cold-flow properties, respectively. However, the kinematic viscosity of biodiesel can cause engine performance problems such as incomplete combustion and sludge formation due to insufficient fuel atomization. To address these problems, in this study, a pretreatment technology that lowers the kinematic viscosity of biodiesel made from blended animal fat and vegetable oil was developed. The results of application of the pretreated fuel to a single-cylinder power tiller engine indicated that it produced 88.3–99.8 % of the brake power produced by conventional diesel. In addition, although the pretreated biodiesel exhaust included increased amounts of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide emissions, the proposed fuel also decreased the amounts of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions compared with conventional diesel emissions.


Blended biodiesel Fuel supply system Kinematic viscosity Performance Power tiller engine 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    I. B. Banković-llić, I. J. Stojković, O. S. Stamenković, V. B. Veljkovic and Y. T. Hung, Waste animal fats as feedstocks for biodiesel production, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 32 (2014) 238–254.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    E. Alptekin and M. Canakci, Determination of the density and the viscosities of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends, Renewable Energy, 33 (12) (2008) 2623–2630.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    M. A. Rahman, M. A. Aziz, A. M. Ruhul and M. M. Rashid, Biodiesel production process optimization from Spirulina maxima microalgae and performance investigation in a diesel engine, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31 (6) (2017) 3025–3033.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    D. Altiparmak, A. Keskin, A. Koca and M. Gürü, Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends, Bioresource Technology, 98 (2) (2007) 241–246.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    M. Balat and H. Balat, Progress in biodiesel processing, Applied Energy, 87 (6) (2010) 1815–1835.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    N. Tippayawong, E. Kongjareon and W. Jompakdee, Ethanolysis of soybean oil into biodiesel: Process optimization via central composite design, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 19 (10) (2005) 1902–1909.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    K. H. Ryu and Y. T. Oh, Combustion characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine using biodiesel fuel, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 18 (4) (2004) 709–717.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    M. S. Graboski and R. L. McCormik, Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 24 (2) (1998) 125–164.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. V. Tomasevic and S. S. Marinkovic, Methanolysis of used frying oil, Fuel Processing Technology, 81 (1) (2003) 1–6.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    G. Knothe, Dependence of biodiesel fuel properties on the structure of fatty acid alkyl esters, Fuel Processing Technology, 86 (10) (2005) 1059–1070.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    G. Knothe and K. R. Steidley, Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel fuel components and related compounds: Influence of compound structure and comparison to petrodiesel fuel components, Fuel, 84 (9) (2005) 1059–1065.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    L. F. Ramírez-Verduzco, J. E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez and A. R. Jaramillo-Jacob, Predicting cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition, Fuel, 91 (1) (2012) 102–111.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    A. S. Ramadhas, S. Jayaraj and C. Muraleedharan, Use of vegetable oils as I.C. engine fuels — A review, Renewable Energy, 29 (5) (2004) 727–742.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    R. E. Tate, K. C. Watts, C. A. W. Allen and K. I. Wilkie, The viscosities of three biodiesel fuels at temperatures up to 300 °C, Fuel, 85 (2006) 1010–1015.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    B. Tesfa, R. Mishra, F. Gu and N. Powles, Prediction models for density and viscosity of biodiesel and their effects on fuel supply system in CI engines, Renewable Energy, 35 (12) (2010) 2752–2760.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. Y. Im, Y. S. Song and J. I. Ryu, Experimental study of the physical and chemical characteristics of biodiesel blended fuel using ultrasonic energy irradiation, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 9 (3) (2008) 249–256.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    P. C. Smith, Y. Ngothai, Q. D. Nguyen and B. K. O'Neill, Improving the low-temperature properties of biodiesel: Methods and consequences, Renewable Energy, 34 (3) (2009) 794–800.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    S. A. Basha, K. R. Gopal and S. Jebaraj, A review on biodiesel production, combustion, emissions and performance, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13 (6-7) (2009) 1628–1634.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    K. H. Lee, J. W. Chung, B. S. Kim, and S. K. Kim, Investigation of soot formation in a D.I. diesel engine by using laser induced scattering and laser induced incandescence, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 18 (7) (2004) 1169–1176.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    S. Srihari and S. Thirumalini, Investigation on reduction of emission in PCCI-DI engine with biofuel blends, Renewable Energy, 114 (2017) 1232–1237.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    D. G. Woo and T. H. Kim, Production of animal fat and vegetable oil blended biodiesels, Proc. of Emerging Technologies in Mechanical Engineering, Jeju, Korea (2018) 502.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    M. Gülüm and A. Bilgin, Two-term power models for estimating kinematic viscosities of different biodieseldiesel fuel blends, Fuel Processing Technology, 149 (2016) 121–130.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    L. P. Lima, F. F. P. Santos, E. Costa and F. A. N. Fernandes, Production of free fatty acids from waste oil by application of ultrasound, Biomass Conversion and Biore-finery, 2 (4) (2012) 309–315.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    F. F. P. Santos, J. Q. Malveira, M. G. A. Cruz and F. A. N. Fernandes, Production of biodiesel by ultrasound assisted esterification of oreochromis niloticus oil, Fuel, 89 (2) (2010) 275–279.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    C. E. Ejim, B. A. Fleck and A. Amirfazli, Analytical study for atomization of biodiesels and their blends in a typical injector Surface tension and viscosity effects, Fuel, 86 (10-11) (2007) 1534–1544.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    H. Raheman and A. G. Phadatare, Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel, Biomass and Bioenergy, 27 (4) (2004) 393–397.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    C. Kaplan, R. Arslan and A. Surmen, Performance characteristics of sunflower methyl esters as biodiesel, Energy Sources, 28 (Part A) (2006) 751–755.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    E. Buyukkya, Effects of biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics, Fuel, 89 (10) (2010) 3099–3105.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    M. Lapuerta, O. Armas and J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 34 (2) (2008) 198–223.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    H. K. Suh and C. S. Lee, A review on atomization and exhaust emissions of a biodiesel-fueled compression ignition engine, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58 (2016) 1601–1620.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    B. Tesfa, R. Mishra, C. Zhang, F. Gu and A. D. Ball, Combustion and performance characteristics of CI (compression ignition) engine running with biodiesel, Energy, 51 (2013) 101–115.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    H. Aydin and H. Bayindir, Performance and emission analysis of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine, Renewable Energy, 35 (3) (2010) 588–592.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    A. Monyem and J. H. V. Gerpen, The effect of biodiesel oxidation on engine performance and emissions, Biomass and Bioenergy, 20 (4) (2001) 317–325.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    B. S. Chauhan, N. Kumar, Y. D. Jun and K. B. Lee, Performance and emission study of preheated Jatropha oil on medium capacity diesel engine, Energy, 35 (6) (2010) 2484–2492.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    M. Celik, Examining combustion and emission characteristics of cotton methyl ester to which manganese additive material was added, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31 (12) (2017) 6041–6050.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    A. M. Liaquat, H. H. Masjuki, M. A. Kalam, I. M. Rizwanul Fattah, M. A. Hazrat, M. Varman, M. Mofijur and M. Shahabuddin, Effect of coconut biodiesel blended fuels on engine performance and emission characteristics, Pro-cedia Engineering, 56 (2013) 583–590.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    P. M. Shameer and K. Ramesh, Green technology and performance consequences of an eco-friendly substance on a 4-stroke diesel engine at standard injection timing and compression ratio, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31 (3) (2017) 1497–150.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    B. F. Lin, J. H. Huang and D. Y. Huang, Experimental study of the effects of vegetable oil methyl ester on DI diesel engine performance characteristics and pollutant emissions, Fuel, 88 (9) (2009) 1779–1785.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    T. T. Kivevele, L. Kristóf, Á. Bereczky and M. M. Mbarawa, Engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of a CI engine fueled with croton megalocarpus methyl ester with antioxidant, Fuel, 90 (8) (2011) 2782–2789.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    A. Alahmer, J. Yamin, A. Sakhrieh and M. A. Hamdan, Engine performance using emulsified diesel fuel, Energy Conversion and Management, 51 (2010) 1708–1713.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    A. S. Ramadhas, C. Muraleedharan and S. Jayaraj, Performance and emission evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl esters of rubber seed oil, Renewable Energy, 30 (12) (2005) 1789–1800.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    J. Xue, T. E. Grift and A. C. Hansen, Effect of biodiesel on engine performances and emissions, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (2) (2011) 1098–1116.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    F. Wu, J. Wang, W. Chen and S. Shuai, A study on emission performance of a diesel engine fueled with five typical methyl ester biodiesels, Atmospheric Environment, 43 (7) (2009) 1481–1485.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Y. Ulusoy, Y. Tekin, M. Çetinkaya and F. Kapaosmanoğlu, The engine tests of biodiesel from used frying oil, Energy Sources Part A, 26 (2004) 927–932.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    M. Canakci, Performance and emissions characteristics of biodiesel from soybean oil, Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, UK, 219 (7) (2005) 915–922.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    P. K. Sahoo, L. M. Das, M. K. G. Babu, P. Arora, V. P. Singh, N. R. Kumar and T. S. Varyani, Comparative evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of jatropha, karanja and polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a tractor engine, Fuel, 88 (9) (2009) 1698–1707.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    O. Armas, K. Yehliu and A. L. Boehman, Effect of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions during diesel engine operation with matched combustion phasing, Fuel, 89 (2) (2010) 438–456.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    J. T. Song and C. H. Zhang, An experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with soybean oil methyl ester, Journal of Automobile Engineering, 222 (12) (2008) 2487–2496.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    H. Venu and V. Madhavan, Effect of diethyl ether and Al2O3 nano additives in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends: Performance, combustion and emission characteristics, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31 (1) (2017) 409–420.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    N. R. Banapurmath and P. G. Tewari, Performance of a low heat rejection engine fuelled with low volatile Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME), Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, UK, 222 (3) (2008) 323–330.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    N. R. Banapurmatha, P. G. Tewaria and R. S. Hosmath, Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters, Renewable Energy, 33 (9) (2008) 1982–1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© KSME & Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Faculty of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Bio-Industrial Machinery EngineeringKyungpook National UniversityDaeguKorea

Personalised recommendations