Recent advances in finite element modeling of the human cervical spine

  • Yoon Hyuk Kim
  • Batbayar Khuyagbaatar
  • Kyungsoo Kim
Invited Review Paper


The human cervical spine is a complex structure that is the most frequently injured site among all spinal injuries. Therefore, understanding of the cervical spine injury and dysfunction, and also biomechanical response to external stimuli is important. Finite element (FE) modeling can help researchers to access the internal stresses and strains in the bones, ligaments and soft tissues more realistically, and it has been widely adopted for spine biomechanics research. Although in recent years numerous techniques have been developed, there are no recent literature reviews on FE models of the cervical spine. Our objective was to present recent advances in FE modeling of the human cervical spine in terms of component modeling, material properties, and validation procedures. Model applications and further development are also discussed. The integration of new technologies will allow us to generate more accurate and comprehensive model of the cervical spine, which can increase efficiency and model applicability. Finally, the FE modeling can help to facilitate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention technologies for cervical spine injuries.


Cervical spine Finite element modeling Material properties 


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoon Hyuk Kim
    • 1
  • Batbayar Khuyagbaatar
    • 1
  • Kyungsoo Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKyung Hee UniversityYonginKorea
  2. 2.Department of Applied MathematicsKyung Hee UniversityYonginKorea

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