Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 893–901 | Cite as

Crawler robot kinematics modeling by using a two-wheeled approach

  • Konrad Majkut
  • Mariusz Giergiel
  • Piotr KohutEmail author


The aim of this paper is to analyze the kinematics of a small crawler robot. A mathematical model of kinematics based on a two-wheeled approach is proposed. This model is experimentally verified using vision-based motion measurements of a crawler vehicle equipped with encoders and a remote control system. It is assumed that the vehicle moves along a few curves with different angular speeds of its wheels. Based on the model of motion and the values of these speeds, numerical simulations are investigated. The results obtained from numerical and experimental validation are presented and discussed. The comparison delivered some important conclusions.


Crawler robot kinematics Model verification Vision-based measurements Two-wheeled model 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    T. Buratowski, Mobile robots -selected issues, AGH Press, Krakow (2013).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    L. Zhijun and S. G. Shuzhi, Fundamentals in Modeling and Control of Mobile Manipulators, CRC Press (2013).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    P. F. Muir, Modeling and control of mobile robots, Ph.D. Thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh (1988).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. Madsen, T. Heyn and D. Negrut, Methods of tracked vehicle system modeling and simulation, Based Engineering Reports, TR-2010-01 (2010).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    F. Zhejun, Modeling and control of autonomous tracked vehicles, University of Michigan (1995).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    M. D. Tehmoor and R. G. Longoria, Slip Estimation for Small-Scale Robotic Tracked Vehicles, American Control Conference, Marriott Waterfront, Baltimore, MD, USA (2010) 6816–6821.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    D. Endo, Y. Okada, K. Nagatani and K. Yoshida, Path following control for tracked vehicles based on slipcompensating odometry, Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Diego, CA, USA (2007) 2871–2876.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Z. Fan, Y. Koren and D. Wehe, Tracked mobile control: hybrid approach, Control Eng. Practice, 3 (3) (1995) 329–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    M. Gianni, F. Ferri, M. Menna and F. Pirri, Adaptive robust Three-dimensional trajectory tracking for actively articulated tracked vehicles, Journal of Field Robotics (2015) DOI: 10.1002/rob.21584.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    R. Gonzalez, F. Rodriguez, J. L. Guzman and M. Berenguel, Localization and control of tracked mobile robots under slip conditions, Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics, Malaga, Spain (2009) DOI: 10.1109/ ICMECH.2009.4957141.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Kitano and M. Kuma, An analysis of horizontal plane motion of tracked vehicles, J. Terramechanics, 14 (1977) 211–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    T. Le Anh, C. R. David and H. F. Durrant-Whyte, Estimation of tack-soil interactions for autonomous tracked vehicles, Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2 (1997) 1388–1393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. Kim, F. C. Park and Y. Park, Design, analysis and control of a wheeled mobile robot with a nonholonomic spherical CVT, The Int. Journal of Robotics Research, 21 (5) (2002) 409–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. L. Martínez, A. Mandow, J. Morales, S. Pedraza and A. García-Cerezo, Approximating kinematics for tracked mobile robots, The Int. Journal of Robotics Research, 24 (10) (2005) 867–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. L. Martínez, A. Mandow, J. Morales, S. Pedraza and A. García-Cerezo, Kinematic modelling of tracked vehicles by experimental identification, Proc. of 2004 IEEORSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Sendal, Japan, 2 (2004) 1487–1492.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. Moosavian, A. Ali and A. Kalantari, Experimental slip estimation for exact kinematics modeling and control of a tracked mobile robot, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Acropolis Convention Center Nice, France (2008) 95–100.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    H. Murakami, K. Watanabe and M. Kitano, A mathematical model for spatial motion of tracked vehicles on soft ground, J. Temmechanics, 29 (1) (1992) 71–81.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    K. Nagatani, D. Endo and K. Yoshida, Improvement of the odometry accuracy of a crawler vehicle with consideration of slippage, Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation, Roma, Italy (2007) 2752–2757, DOI:10.1109/ ROBOT.2007.363881.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    J. Pentzer and S. Brennan, Model-based prediction of skeed-steer robot kinematics using online estimation of track instantaneous centers of rotation, Journal of Field Robotics, 31 (3) (2014) 455–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Z. Shiller, W. Serate and M. Hua, Trajectory planning of tracked vehicles, Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation, Atlanta, GA, 3 (1993) 796–801.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    S. Shoval and A. Shapiro, Dual-tracked mobile robot for motion in challenging terrains, Journal of Field Robotics, 28 (5) (2011) 769–791.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    T.-K. Yeu et al., Study on underwater navigation of crawler type mining robot, Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation, OCEANS'11 MTS/IEEE KONA, ISSN 0197-7385 (2011) 1–6.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    G. G. Wang, S. H. Wang and C. W. Chen, Design of turning control for a tracked vehicle, IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 10 (3) (1990) 122–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    J. Y. Wong, Theory of Ground Vehicles, 3rd Edition, Wiley, New York (2001).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    L. Yugang and L. Guangjun, Modeling of tracked mobile manipulators with consideration of track-terrain and vehiclemanipulator interactions, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 57 (11) (2009) 1065–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Y. Zhang and T. Huang, Research on a tracked omnidirectional and cross-country vehicle, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 87 (2015) 18–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Robotics and MechatronicsAGH University of Science and TechnologyCracowPoland

Personalised recommendations