Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 123–132 | Cite as

Effects on corrosion resistance of rebar subjected to deep cryogenic treatment

  • Srinivasagam Ramesh
  • B. Bhuvaneswari
  • G. S. Palani
  • D. Mohan LalEmail author
  • Nagesh R. Iyer


An attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the corrosion resistance of rebar. Corrosion behavior of samples subjected to deep cryogenic treatment and samples tempered after deep cryogenic treatment was studied by linear polarization method. The Vickers hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the samples were also measured. The possible mechanism for increase in corrosion resistance has been explained based on Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) study. The morphology of the corroded surfaces of the samples was studied using Atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that there is 69 % improvement in corrosion resistance because of deep cryogenic treatment, further it was seen that the increase in corrosion resistance was due to the contribution of increased pearlite phase. Deep cryogenic treatment had no adverse effect on ultimate tensile strength and hardness, which are crucial properties to be considered for rebar.


Atomic force microscopy Corrosion Cryogenics Hardness Linear polarization study Rebar Ultimate tensile strength XRD 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    I. L. Al-Qadi, J. E. Peterson and R. E. A. Weyers, Time to cracking model for critically contaminated reinforced concrete structures, Proc. Fifth Int. Conf: on Structural Faults and Repair, Edinburgh, UK (1993) 91–98.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    S. J. Pantazopoulou and K. D. papoulia, Modeling covercracking due to reinforcement corrosion in RC structures, J. Eng. Mech., 127 (4) (2001) 342–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    K. lundgren, Modelling the effect of corrosion on bond in reinforced concrete, Mag. Concr. Res., 54 (3) (2002) 165–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    K. Bhargava, A. K. Ghosh, Y. Mori and S. Ramanujam, Modeling of time to corrosion-induced cover cracking in reinforced concrete structures, Cem. Concr. Res., 35 (2005) 2203–2218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    H. M. Shodja, K. Kiani and A. Hashemian, A model for the evolution of concrete deterioration due to reinforcement corrosion, Math. Comput. Modell., 52 (2010) 1403–1422.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    K. Kiani and H. M. Shodja, Prediction of the penetrated rust into the microcracks of concrete caused by reinforcement corrosion, Appl. Math. Modell., 35 (2011) 2529–2543.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    K. Kiani and H. M. Shodja, Response of reinforced concrete structures to macrocell corrosion of reinforcement, Part I: Before propagation of microcracks via an analytical approach, Nucl. Eng. Des., 241 (2011) 4874–4892.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    K. Kiani and H. M. Shodja, Response of reinforced concrete structures to macrocell corrosion of reinforcement. Part I: After propagation of microcracks via a numerical approach, Nucl. Eng. Des., 242 (2012) 7–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. A. Almusallam, Effect of degree of corrosion on the properties of reinforcing steel bars, Construct Build Mater., 15 (8) (2001) 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    E. Zitrou, J. Nikolaou, P. E. Tsakiridis and G. D. Papadimitriou, Atmospheric corrosion of steel reinforcing bars produced by various manufacturing processes, Construct Build Mater., 21 (2007) 1161–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    V. Kumar, Protection of steel reinforcement for concrete-A review, Corros. Rev., 16 (4) (1988) 317–358.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    B. Elsener, Corrosion rate of steel in concrete-measurements beyond the Tafel law, Corros. Sci., 47 (2005) 3019–3033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    B. Elsener, Macrocell corrosion of steel in concrete -implications for corrosion monitoring, Cement Concrete Comp, 24 (2002) 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    S. Qian, J. Zhang and D. Qu, Theoretical and experimental study of microcell and macrocell corrosion in patch repairs of concrete structures, Cement Concrete Comp, 28 (2006) 685–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    C. M. Hansson, A. Poursaee and A. Laurent, Macrocell and microcell corrosion of steel in ordinary Portland cement and high performance concretes, Cement Concrete Res, 36 (2006) 2098–2102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    P. Novak, R. Mala and L. Joska, Influence of pre-rusting on steel corrosion in concrete, Cement Concrete Res, 31 (2001) 589–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    X. Fu and D. D. L. Chung, Effect of corrosion on the bond between concrete and steel rebar, Cement Concrete Res, 27 (12) (1997) 181l-1815.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    O. Kayali and S. R. Yeomaus, Bond of ribbed galvanized reinforcing steel concrete, Cem. Concr Comp, 22 (2000) 459–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    A. U. Malik, I. Andijani, S. Ahmed and A.-M. Fahd, Corrosion and mechanical behavior of fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) in aqueous media, Desalination, 150 (3) (2002) 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    A. B. Darwin and J. D. Scantlebury, Retarding of corrosion processes on reinforcement bar in concrete with an FBE coating, Cem Concr Comp, 24 (1) (2002) 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    S. Erdogdu, T. W. Bremner and I. L. Kondratova, Accelerated testing of plain and epoxy-coated reinforcement in simulated seawater and chloride solutions, Cem Concr Res, 31 (6) (2001) 861–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    R. F. Barron and R. H. Thompson, Effect of cryogenic treatment on corrosion resistance, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering Materials, 36 (1990) 1375–1379.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    S. K. Putatunda, Fracture toughness of a high carbon and high silicon steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 297 (2001) 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    D. Das, R. Sarkar, A. K. Dutta and K. K. Ray, Influence of sub-zero treatments on fracture toughness of AISI D2 steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 528 (2010) 589–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    S. Zhirafar, A. Rezaeian and M. Pugh, Effect of cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of 4340 steel, J. Mater. Process. Technol, 186 (2007) 298–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    S. Harish, A. Bensely, D. M. Lal, A. Rajadurai and G. B. Lenkey, Microstructural study of cryogenically treated En31 bearing steel, J. Mater. Proc. Technol., 209 (2009) 3351–3357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    D. N. Collins and J. Dormer, Deep cryogenic treatment of a D2 cold-worked tool steel, Heat Treat. Met., 24 (3) (1997) 71–74.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    D. Senthilkumar, I. Rajendran, M. Pellizzari and J. Siiriainen, Influence of shallow and deep cryogenic treatment on the residual state of stress of 4140 steel, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 211 (2011) 396–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    K. P. Kollmer, Applications & developments in the cryogenic processing of materials, The Technology Interface. Electronic Journal for Engineering Technology, 3 (1) (1999).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Z. Zhu, J. Zhao and X. Huang, Effects of cryotreat on the corrosion resistance of the medium melting point castable alloy, West China Journal of Stomatology, 20 (5) (2002) 316–319.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    A. Akhbarizadeh, K. Amini and S. Javadpour, Effects of applying an external magnetic field during the deep cryogenic heat treatment on the corrosion resistance and wear behavior of 1.2080 tool steel, Mater Design, 41 (2012) 114–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Q.-Q. Wang, W.-Z. Wang, F.-Z. Xuan and S.-T. Tu, A new method improving intergranular corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel, FM2008 -Evaluation, Inspection and Monitoring of Structural Integrity (2008) 411–416.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    ASTM standard E92-82, Standard test method for Vickers hardness of metallic materials, Annual book of standards (2004).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    ASTM standard A370-03a, Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products, Annual book of standards (2004).Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    ASTM standard G3-89, Standard Practice for Conventions Applicable to Electrochemical Measurements in Corrosion Testing, Annual book of standards (2004).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    ASTM standard E975-03, Standard Practice for X-Ray Determination of Retained Austenite in Steel with Near Random Crystallographic Orientation, Annual book of standards (2004).Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    R. Abedinzadeh, S. M. Safavi and F. Karimzadeh, A study of pressureless microwave sintering, microwave-assisted hot press sintering and conventional hot pressing on properties of aluminium/alumina nanocomposite, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 30 (5) (2016) 1967–1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    A. Kamboj, S. Kumar and H. Singh, Burr height and hole diameter error minimization in drilling of AL6063/15%/SiC composites using HSS step drills, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 29 (7) (2015) 2837–2846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    M. Ferhat, A. Benchettara, S. E Amara and D. Najjar, Corrosion behaviour of Fe-C alloys in a sulfuric medium, J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 5 (4) (2014)1059–1068.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    J. Mazur, Investigation on austenite and martensite subjected to very low temperatures, Cryogenics, 4 (1964) 36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    M. G. Fontana, Corrosion engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India, 36 (2005) 1375–1379.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    S. Kalia, C. Processing: A study of materials at low temperatures, J. Low Temp. Phys, 158 (2010) 934–945.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    H. Yumoto, Y. Nagamine, J. Nagahama and M. Shimotomai, Corrosion and stability of cementite films prepared by electron shower, Vacuum, 65 (2002) 527–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Srinivasagam Ramesh
    • 1
  • B. Bhuvaneswari
    • 2
  • G. S. Palani
    • 2
  • D. Mohan Lal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nagesh R. Iyer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering GuindyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Structural Engineering Research CentreCSIR CampusChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations