Advertisement

Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 29, Issue 10, pp 4329–4340 | Cite as

Study of surface roughness and flank wear in hard turning of AISI 4140 steel with coated ceramic inserts

  • Sudhansu Ranjan Das
  • Debabrata Dhupal
  • Amaresh Kumar
Article

Abstract

This experimental investigation deals with dry hard turning of AISI 4140 steel using PVD-TiN coated Al2O3+TiCN mixed ceramic inserts. The combined effect of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut) on performance characteristics such as surface roughness and flank wear is explored by Full factorial design (FFD) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that feed is the principal cutting parameter influencing surface roughness, followed by cutting speed. However, flank wear is affected by the cutting speed and interaction of feed-depth of cut, although depth of cut has not been found statistically significant, but flank wear is an increasing function of depth of cut. Observations are made on the machined surface, and worn tool by Scanning electron microscope (SEM) to establish the process. Abrasion was the major wear mechanism found during hard turning within the studied range. The effect of tool wear on surface roughness was also studied. The experimental data were analyzed to predict the optimal range of surface roughness and flank wear. Based on Response surface methodology (RSM), mathematical models were developed for surface roughness (Ra) and flank wear (VB) with 95% confidence level. Finally, under optimum cutting conditions (obtained by response optimization technique), tool life was evaluated to perform cost analysis for justifying the economic viability of coated ceramic inserts in hard turning. The estimated machining cost per part for TiN coated ceramic was found to be lower (Rs. 12.31) because of higher tool life (51 min), which results in the reduction of downtime and increase in savings.

Keywords

AISI 4140 steel TiN-coated ceramic tool Surface roughness Flank wear RSM Cost analysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    T. J. Ko and H. S. Kim, Surface integrity and machineability in intermittent hard turning, International J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 18 (2001) 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    H. Tonshoff, C. Arendt and R. B. Amor, Cutting of hardened steel, CIRP Annals -Manufacturing Technology, 49 (2002) 547–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    W. Grzesik, Machining of hard materials, In: Paulo Davim, J. (ed.), Machining Fundamentals and Recent Advances, Springer-Verlag London (2008) 97–126.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    S. R. Das, D. Dhupal and A. Kumar, Surface roughness analyses of turned hardened AISI 4340 steel with coated carbide inserts, Proceedings of 4th & 25th International Conference AIMTDR, Kolkata, India, December (2012).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    I. Mukherjee and P. K. Ray, A review of optimization techniques in metal cutting processes, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 50 (2006) 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    E. Aslan, N. Camuscu and B. Bingoren, Design optimization of cutting parameters when turning hardened AISI 4140 (63 HRC) with Al2O3+TiCN mixed ceramic tool, Materials & Design, 28 (2007) 1618–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    H. Aouici, M. A. Yallese, B. Fnides, K. Chaoui and T. Mabrouki, Modeling and optimization of hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1 steel with CBN tool: Machining parameters effects on flank wear and surface roughness, JMST, 25 (2011) 2843–2851.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S. Saini, I. S. Ahuja and V. S. Sharma, Influence of cutting parameters on tool wear and surface roughness in hard turning of AISI H11 tool steel using ceramic tools, International J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 13 (2012) 1295–1302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    V. N. Gaitonde, S. R. Karnik, L. Figueira and J. P. Davim, Analysis of machinability during hard turning of cold work tool steel (Type: AISI D2), J. of Materials Processing Technology, 24 (2009) 1373–1382.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    I. Asiltürk and H. Akkus, Determining the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness in hard turning using the Taguchi method, Measurement, 44 (2011) 1697–1704.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    J. S. Dureja, V. K. Gupta, V. S. Sharma and M. Dogra, Design optimisation of flank wear and surface roughness for CBN-TiN tools during dry hard turning of hot work die steel, International J. of Machining and Machinability of Materials, 7 (2010) 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    A. K. Sahoo and B. Sahoo, Performance studies of multilayer hard surface coatings (TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/TiN) of indexable carbide inserts in hard machining: Part-II (RSM, grey relational and techno economical approach), Measurement, 46 (2013) 2868–2884.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. T. Horng, N. M. Liu and K. Y. Chiang, Investigating the machinability evaluation of Hadfield steel in the hard turning with Al2O3/TiC mixed ceramic tool based on the response surface methodology, J. of Materials Processing Technology, 208 (2008) 532–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    R. Suresh, S. Basavarajappa, V. N. Gaitonde and G. L. Samuel, Machinability investigations on hardened AISI 4340 steel using coated carbide insert, International J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 33 (2012) 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. P. Davim and L. Figueira, Machinability evaluation in hard turning of cold work tool steel (D2) with ceramic tools using statistical techniques, Materials and Design, 28 (2007) 1186–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    M. C. Cakir, C. Ensarioglu and I. Demirayak, Mathematical modeling of surface roughness for evaluating the effects of cutting parameters and coating material, J. of Materials Processing Technology, 209 (2009) 102–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    R. Quiza, L. Figueira and J. P. Davim, Comparing statistical models and artificial neural networks on predicting the tool wear in hard machining D2 AISI steel, International J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 37 (2008) 641–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    T. Ozel, Y. Karpat, L. Figueira and J. P. Davim, Modelling of surface finish and tool flank wear in turning of AISI D2 steel with ceramic wiper inserts, J. of Materials Processing Technology, 189 (2007) 192–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    TaeguTec Limited, Turning Tools, Metalworking Cutting Tools, Catalogue (2013).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    P. J. Ross, Taguchi techniques for quality engineering, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1996).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    M. C. Shaw, Metal cutting principles, 2nd ed., Oxford U. P., New York (2005).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    N. Camuscu, Effect of cutting speed on the performance of Al2O3 based ceramic tools in turning nodular cast iron, Materials & Design, 27 (2006) 997–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    B. Fnides, H. Aouici and M. A. Yallese, Cutting forces and surface roughness in hard turning of hot work steel X38CrMoV5-1 using mixed ceramic, Mechanika, 2 (2009) 73–78.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    H. A. Kishawy and M. A. Elbestawi, Tool wear and surface integrity during high-speed turning of hardened steel with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tools, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: J. of Engineering Manufacture, 215 (2001) 755–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    S. Khamel, N. Ouelaa and K. Bouacha, Analysis and prediction of tool wear, surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning with CBN tool, JMST, 26 (2012) 3605–3616.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    B. Zou, M. Chen, C. Z. Huang and Q. L. An, Study on surface damages caused by turning NiCr20TiAl nickel-based alloy, J. of Materials Processing Technology, 209 (2009) 5802–5809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    J. Zhou, V. Bushlya, P. Avdovic and J. E. Stahl, Study of surface quality in high speed turning of Inconel 718 with uncoated and coated CBN tools, International J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 58 (2011) 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    D. C. Montgomery, Design and analysis of experiments, 6 ed., Wiley, New York (2004).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    A. K. Sahoo and B. Sahoo, Experimental investigations on machinability aspects in finish hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using uncoated and multilayer coated carbide inserts, Measurement, 45 (2012) 2153–2165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    R. Suresh, S. Basavarajappa and G. L. Samuel, Some studies on hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using multilayer coated carbide tool, Measurement, 45 (2012) 1872–1884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    X. L. Liu, D. H. Wen, Z. J. Li, L. Xiao and F. G. Yan, Cutting temperature and tool wear of hard turning hardened bearing steel, J. of Materials Processing Technology, 129 (2002) 200–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    R. Pavel, I. Marinescu, M. Deis and J. Pillar, Effect of tool wear on surface finish for a case of continuous and interrupted hard turning, J. of Materials Processing Technology, 170 (2005) 341–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    M. Elbah, M. A. Yallese, H. Aouici, T. Mabrouki and J. F. Rigal, Comparative assessment of wiper and conventional ceramic tools on surface roughness in hard turning AISI 4140 steel, Measurement, 46 (2013) 3041–3056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    M. A. Yallese, K. Chaoui, N. Zeghib, L. Boulanouar and J. F Rigal, Hard machining of hardened bearing steel using cubic boron nitride tool, J. of Materials Processing Technology, 209 (2009) 1092–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    W. Grzesik, Influence of tool wear on surface roughness in hard turning using differently shaped ceramic tools, Wear, 265 (2008) 327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    A. K. Sood, R. K. Ohdar and S. S. Mahapatra, Experimental investigation and empirical modelling of FDM Process for compressive strength improvement, J. of Advanced Research, 3 (2012) 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sudhansu Ranjan Das
    • 1
  • Debabrata Dhupal
    • 2
  • Amaresh Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Manufacturing EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyJharkhand, JamshedpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Production EngineeringVeer Surendra Sai University of TechnologyBurla, OdishaIndia

Personalised recommendations