Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 28, Issue 11, pp 4761–4769 | Cite as

Effects of surface coating on weld growth of resistance spot-welded hot-stamped boron steels

  • Chang-Wook Ji
  • Ilguk Jo
  • Hyunju Lee
  • Il-Dong Choi
  • Yang do Kim
  • Yeong-Do ParkEmail author


Aluminum-silicon-based and zinc-based metallic coatings have been widely used for hot-stamped boron steel in automotive applications. In this study, resistance spot weldability was explored by investigating the effects of the properties of metallic coating layers on heat development and nugget growth during resistance spot welding. In the case of the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel, the intermetallic coating transformed into a liquid film that covered the faying interface. A wide, weldable current range was obtained with slow heat development because of low contact resistance and large current passage. In the case of the zinc-coated hot-stamped boron steel, a buildup of liquid and vapor formation under large vapor pressure was observed at the faying interface because of the high contact resistance and low vaporization temperature of the intermetallic layers. With rapid heat development, the current passage was narrow because of the limited continuous layer at the faying interface. A more significant change in nugget growth was observed in the zinccoated hot-stamped boron steel than in the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel.


Contact resistance Hot-stamped boron steels Metallic coatings Nugget growth Resistance spot welding 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    H. S. Choi, G. H. Park, W. S. Lim and B. M. Kim, Evaluation of weldability for resistance spot welded single-lap joint between GA780DP and hot-stamped 22MnB5 steel sheets, J. Mech. Sci. Tech, 25 (6) (2011) 1543–1550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    H. Karbasian and A. E. Tekkaya, A review on hot stamping, J. Mat. Proc. Tech, 210 (15) (2010) 2103–2118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. P. Kong, G. M. Kang, T. K. Han, K. G. Chin and C. Y Kang, Effect of Si content on nugget diameter of electric resistance spot welded dual phase steel, J. KWJS, 29 (5) (2011) 99–105.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    H. S. Na, J. P. Kong, T. K. Han, K. G. Chin and C. Y. Kang, Hardness distribution and microstructures of electric resistance spot welded 1GPa grade dual phase steel, J. KWJS, 30 (2) (2012) 76–80.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    H. S. Chang and H. C. Kwon, In-process monitoring of micro resistance spot weld quality using Accelerometer, J. KWJS, 29 (1) (2011) 115–122.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Y. S. Choi, S. M. Yun, Y. J. Cho and S. H. Rhee, A study on the crash characteristics and analysis of spot+adhesive welds in automobile b-pillar parts, J. KWJS, 29 (5) (2011) 72.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    D. S. Choi, D. C. Kim and M. J. Kang, Resistance spot welding characteristics of Mg alloy using process tape, J. KWJS, 31 (3) (2013) 49–53.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    M. Merklein, J. Lechler and T. Stoehr, Characterization of tribological and thermal properties of metallic coatings for hot stamping boron-manganese steels, Proc. of the 7th International Conference Coatings in Manufacturing Engineering, Greece 10 (2008) 219–227.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    H. L. Yi, S. Ghosh and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, Dual-phase hot-press forming alloy, Mat. Science and Engineering A, 527 (18–19) (2010) 4870–4873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    J. Kondratiuk, P. Kuhn, E. Labrenz and C. Bischoff, Zinc coatings for hot sheet metal forming: comparison of phase evolution and microstructure during heat treatment, Surface and Coatings Technology, 205 (17–18) (2011) 4141–4153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    S. Smith, N. J. den Uijl, T. Okada and T. van der Veldt, The effect of ageing on the spot weld strength of AHSS and consequences for testing procedures, Welding in the World, 54 (1–2) (2010) R12–R26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    D. W. Fan and B. C. De Cooman, State-of-the-knowledge on coating systems for hot-stamped parts, Steel Research Int., 83 (5) (2012) 412–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    ISO standard, ISO 18278-2, Resistance welding — weldability, part 2: alternative procedures for the assessment of sheet steels for spot welding (2004).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    International standard, ISO 18594, Resistance spot, projection- and seamwelding-Method for determining the transition resistance on aluminium and steel material (2007).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    C. Y. Choi, D. Y. Lee, I. B. Kim, Y. D. Kim and Y. D. Park, The effect of paint baking on the strength and failure of spot welds for advanced high strength steels, Kor. J. Met. Mater, 49 (12) (2011) 967.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    D. W. Fan and B. C. De Cooman, Formation of an aluminide coating on hot-stamped steel, ISIJ International, 50 (2010) 1713–1718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    D. W. Fan, H. S. Kim, J. K. Oh, K. G Chin and B. C. De Cooman, Coating degradation in hot press forming, ISIJ International, 50 (2010) 561–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    J. G Kaiser, G. J. Dunn and T. W. Eagar, Effect of electrical resistance on nugget formation during spot welding, Welding Journal, 62 (1982) 167.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    A. R. Marder, The metallurgy of zinc-coated steel, Prog. in Materials Science, 45 (3) (2000) 191–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    I. S. Hwang, M. J. Kang and D. C. Kim, Expulsion reduction in resistance spot welding by controlling of welding current waveform, 11th International Conference on the Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 10 (2011) 2775–2781.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    N. Harlin, T. B. Jones and J. D. Parker, Weld growth mechanism of resistance spot welds in zinc coated steel, J. Mat. Proc. Tech, 143–144 (2003) 448–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    R. H Lamoreaux and D. L. Hildenbrand, High-temperature vaporization behavior of oxides II. oxides of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, AI, Ga, In, TI, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Zn, ce. and Hg, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 16 (1987) 419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    H. Murakawa and J. Zhang, Effect of initial gap on nugget formation, Transaction of JWRI, 27 (1998) 75–82.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang-Wook Ji
    • 1
  • Ilguk Jo
    • 2
  • Hyunju Lee
    • 1
  • Il-Dong Choi
    • 3
  • Yang do Kim
    • 1
  • Yeong-Do Park
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringPusan National UniversityBusanKorea
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringColorado School of MinesGoldenUSA
  3. 3.School of Materials Science and EngineeringKorea Maritime and Ocean UniversityBusanKorea
  4. 4.Department of Advanced Materials EngineeringDong-Eui UniversityBusanKorea

Personalised recommendations