Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 133–140 | Cite as

Surface characterization and material migration during surface modification of die steels with silicon, graphite and tungsten powder in EDM process



The present study reports the results of an experimental work carried out to evaluate the improvement in machined surface properties of die steels machined using powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) process. Two surface responses, surface finish and microhardness were analyzed for changes when machined with Si, W and graphite powders mixed in dielectric fluid. The machined surfaces were subsequently analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) to study the element migration from powder, dielectric and the tool. The powder mixed with dielectric and its concentration, current and pulse on time were identified as the significant factors affecting surface finish. Brass electrode and tungsten powder resulted in good surface finish. Amongst the dielectrics used, kerosene provided a better cooling effect whereas EDM oil resulted in better surface finish. The microhardness of the machined surface was also affected by powder and its concentration, current, pulse on time and electrode material. W-Cu electrode and W powder resulted in a higher microhardness. The SEM and EDS analysis showed significant migration of material from the suspended powder, electrode and dielectric to the machined surface.


Electric discharge machining Energy dispersive spectroscopy Material migration Microhardness Powder mixed dielectric Scanning electron microscopy Surface roughness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    A. Ghosh and A. K. Mallik, Manufacturing science, Affiliated East West Press Private Limited, New Delhi, India (2006).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    C. Cogun and S. Akaslan, The effect of machining parameters on tool electrode edge wear and machining performance in electric discharge machining (EDM), KSME Int. J. 16(I) (2002) 46–59.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Y. Y. Tsai and C. T. Lu, Influence of current impulse on machining characteristics in EDM, J Mech. Sci. Technol. 21 (2007) 1617–1621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    M. Gostimirovic, P. Kovac, M. Sekulic and B. Skoric, Influence of discharge energy on machining characteristics in EDM, J Mech. Sci. Technol. 26(1) (2012) 173–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    S. Kumar, R. Singh, T. P. Singh and B. L. Sethi, Surface modification by electrical discharge machining: A review, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209 (2009) 3675–3687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    A. Kumar, S. Maheshwari, C. Sharma and N. Beri, Research developments in additives mixed electrical discharge machining (AEDM): A state of art review, Mater. Manuf. Process 25(10) (2010) 1166–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    N. Beri, S. Maheshwari, C. Sharma and A. Kumar, Technological advancement in electrical discharge machining with powder metallurgy processed electrodes: A review, Mater. Manuf. Process. 25(10) (2010) 1186–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    H. K. Kansal, S. Singh and P. Kumar, Effect of silicon powder mixed EDM on machining rate of AISI D2 die steel, J. Manuf. Process. 9 (2007) 13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    M. L. Jeswani, Effect of the addition of graphite powder to kerosene used as a dielectric fluid in electrical discharge machining, Wear 70 (1981) 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    K. L. Wu, B. H. Yan, F. Y. Huang and S. C. Chen, Improvement of surface finish on SKD steel using electrodischarge machining with aluminium and surfactant added dielectric, Int. J. Machine Tools Manuf. 45 (2005) 1195–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    P. Pecas and E. Henriques, Effect of the powder concentration and dielectric flow in the surface morphology in electrical discharge machining with powder-mixed dielectric (PMD-EDM), Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 37 (2008) 1120–1132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    A. Batish, A. Bhattacharya, V. K. Singla and G. Singh, Study of material transfer mechanism in die steels using powder mixed EDM, Mater. Manuf. Process. 27 (2012) 449–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    S. Kumar, R. Singh, T. P. Singh and B. L. Sethi, Comparison of material transfer in electrical discharge machining of AISI H13 die steel, Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs, Part C: J. Mech. Engng. Sci. 223(7) (2009) 1733–1740.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Y. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, C. T. Lin and H. J. Tzeng, Electrical discharge machining (EDM) characteristics associated with electrical discharge energy on machining of cemented tungsten carbide, Mater. Manuf. Process. 23(4) (2008) 391–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Y. H. Guu, C. Y. Chou and S. T. Chiou, Study of the effect of machining parameters on the machining characteristics in electrical discharge machining of Fe-Mn-Al alloy, Mater. Manuf. Process. 20(6) (2005) 905–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    W. S. Zhao, Q. G. Meng and Z. L. Wang, The application of research on powder mixed EDM in rough machining, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 129 (2002) 30–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    A. Bhattacharya, A. Batish, V. K. Singla and G. Singh, Optimal parameter settings for rough and finish machining of die steels in powder mixed EDM, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 61(5–8) (2012) 537–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    J. H. Jung and W. T. Kwon, Optimization of EDM process for multiple performance characteristics using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis, J Mech. Sci. Technol. 24(5) (2010) 1083–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    H. K. Kansal, S. Singh and P. Kumar, Parametric optimization of powder mixed electrical discharge machining by response surface methodology, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 169 (2005) 427–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Y. C. Lin, C. H. Cheng, B. L. Su and L. R. Hwang, Machining characteristics and optimization of machining parameters of SKH 57 high-speed steel using electricaldischarge machining based on taguchi method, Mater. Manuf. Process. 21(8) (2006) 922–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    A. Bhattacharya, A. Batish and G. Singh, Optimization of powder mixed electric discharge machining using dummy treated experimental design with analytic hierarchy process, Proc. IMechE, Part B: J. Engng. Manuf. 226 (2012) 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    P. J. Ross, Taguchi technique for quality engineering, McGraw Hill, New York, USA (1995).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    N. Kumar, Experimental investigation of machining aspects and surface modification during silicon, grphite and tungsten powder mixed EDM for different die steels, ME Thesis, Thapar University, Patiala (2011).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anirban Bhattacharya
    • 1
  • Ajay Batish
    • 1
  • Naveen Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations