Single-point diamond turning of electroless nickel for flat X-ray mirror
- First Online:
X-ray mirrors require a super-smooth surface to prevent strong X-ray scattering. We examined the fabrication possibility of the X-ray mirror by single-point diamond turning (SPDT) for electroless nickel. The stable and unstable cutting modes for the electroless nickel were obtained by observing the relative position of a diamond tool for machining. A super-smooth surface of 0.95 nm rms was achieved within the stable cutting mode. The surface roughness of the electroless nickel mirror measured with an optical profiler was compared with the X-ray reflectivity measurement. The electroless nickel mirror could be successfully used as a soft X-ray reflector and a low-pass filter for the hard X-rays.
KeywordsElectroless nickel Single-point diamond turning Surface roughness Ultraprecision machining X-ray mirror
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- C. J. Evans, Precision Engineering: An Evolutionary View, Cranfield Press, Cranfield, UK, (1989).Google Scholar
- R. L. Rhorer and C. J. Evans, Fabrication of optics by diamond turning, OSA Handbook of Optics, 2 nd Ed., Vol. 1, McGraw-Hill, Washington DC, USA (1995).Google Scholar
- M. Sato, T. Yamazaki, Y. Shimizu and T. Takabayashi, A study on the microcutting of aluminum single crystals, JSME Int. J. Series C 34(4) (1991) 540–545.Google Scholar
- D. L. Hibbard, Electroless nickel for optical applications, Proc. SPIE CR67 (1997) 179–205.Google Scholar
- J. S. Taylor, C. K. Syn, T. T. Saito and R. R. Donaldson, Surface finish measurements of diamond-turned electroless-nickel-plated mirrors, Opt. Eng. 25(9) (1986) 1013–1020.Google Scholar
- C. J. Evans, R. S. Polvani and A. Mayer, Diamond turning electro-deposited nickel alloys, OSA Technical Digest Series 9 (1990) 110–113.Google Scholar
- A. G. Michette, Optical system for soft X rays, Plenum Press, New York, USA (1986).Google Scholar
- D. Attwood, Soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation: principles and applications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (1999).Google Scholar