Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Micro-Level Analysis of Marine Clay Stabilised with Polyurethane

Abstract

Soil stabilisation is one type of ground improvement technique regarded as effective in minimising foundation problems associated with marine clay (MC). In this paper, in-depth micro-level analysis was conducted on MC stabilised with 8% Polyurethane (PU). The effectiveness of PU as a stabiliser was evaluated using unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and one-dimensional consolidation tests. Mineralogy of MC was studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Furthermore, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) were used to discern the roots of improvement in the strength of MC. The result of XRD analysis identified the presence of Quartz, Montmorillonite, Calcite and Clinochlore. FESEM results discovered that MC showed crumpled, curled and flaked soil particles that have a fuzzy arrangement and cusp-like crystals in a joined fashion. The contact among the particles is surface-to-surface and surface-to-edge. The PU foam was composed of intramolecular closed cells that are non-homogeneous, non-identical, and of inconsistent average diameters of about 2.3 µm. Finally, EDX results revealed that O, C, Si, Al, Fe and N are the elements that contributed more than 96% of the composition of MC and PU.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

ASTM:

American Society for Testing and Materials

Cc :

Compression index

Cr :

Swelling index

EDX:

Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

FESEM:

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

JCPDS:

Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards

MC:

Marine Clay

MDD:

Maximum Dry Density

OMC:

Optimum Moisture Content

PU:

Polyurethane

UCS:

Unconfined Compressive Strength

XRD:

X-Ray Diffraction analysis

References

  1. Ahmari S, Zhang L (2013) Utilization of cement kiln dust (CKD) to enhance mine tailings-based geopolymer bricks. Construction and Building Materials 40:1002–1011, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.11.069

  2. ASTM (2017) Standard practice for making and curing soil-cement compression and flexure test specimens in the laboratory. D1632-17, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, USA

  3. Babcock BN (2018) Cement grout vs chemical grout: Which one to use, when, and why. A white paper providing guidance to the geotechnical community, Avanti International, Houston, TX, USA

  4. Bayati M, Khademi Hamidi J (2017) A case study on TBM tunnelling in fault zones and lessons learned from ground improvement. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 63:162–170, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2016.12.006

  5. Bensaifi E, Bouteldja F, Nouaouria MS, Breul P (2019) Influence of crushed granulated blast furnace slag and calcined eggshell waste on mechanical properties of a compacted marl. Transportation Geotechnics 20:100244, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2019.100244

  6. BS1377-5 (1990) Compressibility, permeability and durability tests. BS1377–5, British Standard Institution, London, UK

  7. Cai G, Liu S (2017) Compaction and mechanical characteristics and stabilization mechanism of carbonated reactive MgO-stabilized silt. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 21(11):2641–2654, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-017-1145-1

  8. Chun B, Ryu DS, Shin C, Im G, Choi J, Lim H (1997) The performance of polyurethane injection method with soil nailing system for ground reinforcement. Ground Improvement Geosystems, 445–451

  9. Estabragh AR, Afsari E, Javadi AA, Babalar M (2020) Effect of Two organic chemical fluids on the mechanical properties of an expansive clay soil. Journal of Testing and Evaluation 48(5):20170623, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1520/JTE20170623

  10. Guo L, Wu DQ (2017) Study of recycling Singapore solid waste as land reclamation filling material. Sustainable Environment Research 27(1):1–6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.serj.2016.10.003

  11. Guo L, Wu DQ (2018) Study of leaching scenarios for the application of incineration bottom ash and marine clay for land reclamation. Sustainable Environment Research 28(6):396–402, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.serj.2018.06.004

  12. Gunturi M, Ravichandran PT, K DK, Annadurai R, Rajkumar PRK (2015) Micro level analysis of RBI 81 stabilized expansive soil. International Journal of ChemTech Research 7(2):666–672

  13. He Z, Li Q, Wang J, Yin N, Jiang S, Kang M (2016) Effect of silane treatment on the mechanical properties of polyurethane/water glass grouting materials. Construction and Building Materials 116:110–120, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.112

  14. Hemalatha MS, Santhanam M (2018) Characterizing supplementary cementing materials in blended mortars. Construction and Building Materials 191:440–459, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.09.208

  15. Ivanov V, Chu J, Stabnikov V, Li B (2015) Strengthening of soft marine clay using bioencapsulation. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology 33(4):320–324, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1064119X.2013.877107

  16. Jamaludin N, Mohd Yunus NZ, Jusoh SN, Pakir F, Ayub A, Zainuddin NE, Hezmi MA, Mashros N (2019) Potential and future: Utilization of waste material on strength characteristics of marine clay. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 527:012003, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/527/1/012003

  17. JCPDS (1995) Standard X-ray diffraction powder patterns. International centre for diffraction data, US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA

  18. Kazemian S, Huat BBK, Prasad A, Barghchi M (2010) A review of stabilization of soft soils by injection of chemical grouting. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 6(12):5862–5868

  19. Kundu SP, Chakraborty S, Chakraborty S (2018) Effectiveness of the surface modified jute fibre as fibre reinforcement in controlling the physical and mechanical properties of concrete paver blocks. Construction and Building Materials 191:554–563, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.10.045

  20. Lei H, Feng S, Jiang Y (2018) Geotechnical characteristics and consolidation properties of Tianjin marine clay. Geomechanics and Engineering 16(2):125–140, DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2018.16.2.125

  21. Li S, Liu R, Zhang Q, Zhang X (2016) Protection against water or mud inrush in tunnels by grouting: A review. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 8(5):753–766, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2016.05.002

  22. Ling FNL, Kassim KA, Karim ATA, Ho SC (2014) Evaluation of contributing factors on strength development of lime stabilized artificial organic soils using statistical design of experiment approach. Advanced Materials Research 905:362–368, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.905.362

  23. MEEI (2014) Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy — handbook of analytical methods for materials. Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc., Plymouth, MN, USA, 17–18

  24. Mohd Yunus NZ, Marto A, Pakir F, Kasran K, Jamal MAA, Jusoh SN, Abdullah N (2015) Performance of lime-treated marine clay on strength and compressibility chracteristics. International Journal of Geomate 8(2):1232–1238, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21660/2015.16.4132

  25. Mohamed Jais IB (2017) Rapid remediation using polyurethane foam/resin grout in Malaysia. Geotechnical Research 4(2):107–117, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/jgere.17.00003

  26. Mohammed Al-Bared MA, Marto A (2017) A review on the geotechnical and engineering characteristics of marine clay and the modern methods of improvements. Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences 13(4):825–831, DOI: https://doi.org/10.11113/mjfas.v13n4.921

  27. Murmu AL, Jain A, Patel A (2019) Mechanical properties of alkali activated fly ash geopolymer stabilized expansive clay. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 23(9):3875–3888, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-019-2251-z

  28. Nian T, Jiao H, Fan N, Guo X (2019) Microstructure analysis on the dynamic behavior of marine clay in the South China Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 1–14, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1064119X.2019.1573864

  29. Olgun M, Yıldız M (2010) Effect of organic fluids on the geotechnical behavior of a highly plastic clayey soil. Applied Clay Science 48(4): 615–621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2010.03.015

  30. Pakir F, Marto A, Mohd Yunus NZ, Tajudin SAA, Tan CS (2015) Effect of sodium silicate as liquid based stabilizer on shear strength of marine clay. Jurnal Teknologi 76(2):45–50

  31. Phetchuay C, Horpibulsuk S, Arulrajah A, Suksiripattanapong C, Udomchai A (2016) Strength development in soft marine clay stabilized by fly ash and calcium carbide residue based geopolymer. Applied Clay 127(128):134–142, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2016.04.005

  32. Priddy LP, Jersey SR, Reese CM (2010) Full-scale field testing for injected foam stabilization of portland cement concrete repairs. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2155(1):24–33, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/2155-03

  33. Ramesh S, Punithamurthy K (2017) The effect of organoclay on thermal and mechanical behaviours of thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures 12(2):331–338

  34. Rahman ZA, Yaacob WZW, Rahim SA, Lihan T, Idris WMR, Mohd Sani WNF (2013) Geotechnical characterisation of marine clay as potential liner material. Sains Malaysiana 42(8):1081–1089

  35. Saleh S, Asmawisham Alel MN, Mohd Yunus NZ, Ahmad K, Ali N, Abang Hasbollah DZ, Asnida Abdullah R (2019a) Geochemistry characterisation of marine clay. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 527:012023, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/527/1/012023

  36. Saleh S, Mohd Yunus NZ, Ahmad K, Ali N (2018) Stabilization of marine clay soil using polyurethane. MATEC Web of Conferences 250:01004, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201825001004

  37. Saleh S, Mohd Yunus NZ, Ahmad K, Ali N (2019b) Improving the strength of weak soil using polyurethane grouts: A review. Construction and Building Materials 202:738–752, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.01.048

  38. Shaikh FUA, Supit SWM, Sarker PK (2014) A study on the effect of nano silica on compressive strength of high volume fly ash mortars and concretes. Materials & Design 60:433–442, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.04.025

  39. Valentino R Stevanoni D (2016) Behaviour of reinforced polyurethane resin micropiles. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers — Geotechnical Engineering 169(2):187–200, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/jgeen.14.00185

  40. Vennapusa PKR, Zhang Y, White DJ (2016) Comparison of pavement slab stabilization using cementitious grout and injected polyurethane foam. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 30(6): 04016056, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000916

  41. Vipulanandan C, Kazez MB, Henning S (2012) Pressure-temperature-volume change relationship for a hydrophilic polyurethane grout. Proceedings of the 4th international conference on grouting and deep mixing, February 15–18, Reston, VA, USA, 1808–1818

  42. Vlad S, Ciobanu C, Butnaru M, Macocinschi D, Filip D, Gradinaru LM, Mandru M (2011) Preparation of polyurethane microspheres by electrospray technique. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures 6(2):643–652

  43. Wei Y, Wang F, Gao X, Zhong Y (2017) Microstructure and fatigue performance of polyurethane grout materials under compression. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 29(9):04017101, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001954

  44. Wu D, Xu W, Tjuar R (2015a) Improvements of marine clay slurries using chemical-physical combined method (CPCM). Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 7(2):220–225, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2015.02.001

  45. Wu H, Zhu M, Liu Z, Yin J (2015b) Developing a polymer-based crack repairing material using interpenetrate polymer network (IPN) technology. Construction and Building Materials 84:192–200, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.03.067

  46. Yang Z, Zhang X, Liu X, Guan X, Zhang C, Niu Y (2017) Flexible and stretchable polyurethane/waterglass grouting material. Construction and Building Materials 138:240–246, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.01.113

  47. Yi Y, Gu L, Liu S (2015) Microstructural and mechanical properties of marine soft clay stabilized by lime-activated ground granulated blastfurnace slag. Applied Clay Science 103:71–76, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.11.005

  48. Zhang M, Zhao M, Zhang G, Sietins JM, Granados-Focil S, Pepi MS, Xu Y, Tao M (2018) Reaction kinetics of red mud-fly ash based geopolymers: Effects of curing temperature on chemical bonding, porosity, and mechanical strength. Cement and Concrete Composites 93:175–185, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2018.07.008

  49. Zhou N, Ouyang S, Cheng Q, Ju F (2019) Experimental study on mechanical behavior of a new backfilling material: Cement-treated marine clay. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2019:1–8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1261694

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the funding of Fundamental Research Grant Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Malaysia, Vot no RJ130000.7851.5F197. The first author is also grateful to the support of Tertiary education trust fund (TFUND) Nigeria.

Author information

Correspondence to Samaila Saleh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Saleh, S., Yunus, N.Z.M., Ahmad, K. et al. Micro-Level Analysis of Marine Clay Stabilised with Polyurethane. KSCE J Civ Eng 24, 807–815 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-020-1797-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Marine clay
  • Polyurethane
  • Unconfined compressive strength
  • X-ray diffraction analysis
  • Field emission scanning electron
  • microscopy
  • Energy dispersive spectroscopy