Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

A Case Study of the Rapid and Long Runout Landslide at Hong’ao Waste Disposal Site in Shenzhen, China

  • 16 Accesses

Abstract

A disastrous landslide occurred at the Hong’ao Waste Disposal Site in Shenzhen, China on December 20, 2015, involving a volume of 2.7 × 106 m3 of municipal solid waste (MSW) that travelled a distance of 700 to 800 m, covering an area of 3.8 × 105 m2 and caused 90 casualties. The geomorphological and geological characteristics of the waste disposal site were carefully examined and the landslide was classified as an extremely rapid flowslide. The major feature of the waste site was the basin-like structure with the bottom composed of low-permeable granite bedrock. Therefore, surface runoff could easily accumulate in the MSW due to the lack of drainage system, resulting in an increasing groundwater level. Laboratory tests, including physical characterization, Consolidation Isotropic Undrained (CIU) test and direct shear test were conducted to characterize the material properties of the MSW. Physical characterization indicated the MSW belongs to sandy silt, CIU tests indicated that static liquefaction was conducive to high-speed sliding. The direct shear test data were used to carry out numerical analysis of slope stability, in which the continuous rise in the groundwater level was taken into account. Numerical simulation showed that the pore water pressure induced by underground water seepage and gradual loading from the upper MSW placement aggravate the failure. Consequently, the main reason of the landslide could be concluded as follows: 1) the perched groundwater level due to a large upstream catchment area and the lack of drainage system; 2) the excess pore water pressure induced by static liquefaction played a significant role in its mobility.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Chen H, Lee CF, Law KT (2004) Causative mechanisms of rainfall-induced fill slope failures. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 130(6):593–602, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1090-02412004130:6(593)

  2. China Strategic Alliance of Technological Innovation for Construction Waste Incycling Industry (2014) Development Report on recycling construction waste in china. China Strategic Alliance of Technological Innovation for Construction Waste Incycling Industry, Beijing, China

  3. Dai FC, Lee CF, Wang SJ (1999) Analysis of rain fall-induced slide-debris flows on natural terrain of Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Engineering Geology 51:279–290, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0013-7952(98)00047-7

  4. Davies WE, Bailey JF, Kelly D (1972) West Virginia’s Buffalo Creek flood: A study of the hydrology and engineering geology. No. 667, US Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3133/cir667

  5. Doanh T, Ibraim E, Matiotti R (1997) Undrained instability of very loose hostun sand in triaxial compression and extension. Part 1: Experimental observations. Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Materials 2(2):47–70, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-1484(199701)2:K47::aid-cfm26>3.3.co;2-0

  6. Google Earth (2015) Image of Shenzhen landslide. Retrieved September 20, 2015, http://www.google.cn/intl/zh-CN/earth/

  7. Ghiassian H, Ghareh S (2008) Stability of sandy slopes under seepage conditions. Landslides 5:397–406, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/sl0346-008-0132-5

  8. Guzzetti F, Peruccacci S, Rossi M, Stark CP (2007) Rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides in Central and Southern Europe. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 98(3):239–267, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/S00703-007-0262-7

  9. Guzzetti F, Peruccacci S, Rossi M, Stark CP (2008) The rainfall intensity-duration control of shallow landslides and debris flows: An update. Landslides 5:3–17, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-007-0112-1

  10. Hungr O, Leroueil S, Picarelli L (2014) The varnes classification of landslide types, an update. Landslides 11(2):167–194, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/sl0346-013-0436-y

  11. Istomina VS, Burenkova VV, Mishurova GV (1975) Percolation strength of clays. Power Technology and Engineering 9(11):1111–1111, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02382369

  12. Iverson RM, Reid ME, Lahusen RG (1997) Debris-flow mobilization from landslides 1. Annual Review of Earth & Planetary Sciences 25(1):85–138, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.25.1.85

  13. Lade PV, Pradel D (1990) Instability and plastic flow of soils, i: Experimental observations. Journal of Engineering Mechanics 116(11):2532–2550, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-9399(1990)116:11(2532)

  14. Lavigne F, Wassmer P, Gomez C, Davies TA, Hadmoko DS, Yan T, Gaillard JC, Fort M, Texier P, Heng MB, Pratomo I (2014) The 21 February 2005, catastrophic waste avalanche at Leuwigajah dumpsite, Bandung, Indonesia. Geoenvironmental Disasters 1(1):10, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40677-014-0010-5

  15. Lee S, Pradhan B (2007) Landslide hazard mapping at Selangor, Malaysia using frequency ratio and logistic regression models. Landslides 4:33–41, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-006-0047-y

  16. Merry SM, Kavazanjian Jr E, Fritz WU (2005) Reconnaissance of the July 10, 2000, Payatas landfill failure. Journal of Performance of constructed Facilities 19(2):100–107, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0887-3828(2005)19:2(100)

  17. Ministry of Emergency Management of the People’s Republic of China (2016) The Shenzhen landslide was identified as a major production safety liability accident. Retrieved March 9, 2016, http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2016-03/09/c_l118283481.htm

  18. Okura Y, Kitahara H, Ochiai H, Sammori T, Kawanami A (2002) Landslide fluidization process by flume experiments. Engineering Geology 66(1-2):65–78, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(02)00032-7

  19. Ouyang C, Zhou K, Xu Q, Yin J, Peng D, Wang D, Li W (2016) Dynamic analysis and numerical modeling of the 2015 catastrophic landslide of the construction waste landfill at guangming, Shenzhen, China. Landslides 14:705–718, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-016-0764-9

  20. Pirone M, Papa R Nicotera M V, Urciuoli G (2015) In situ monitoring of the groundwater field in an unsaturated pyroclastic slope for slope stability evaluation. Landslides 12:259–276, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-014-0483-z

  21. Sammarco O (2004) A tragic disaster caused by the failure of tailings dams leads to the formation of the stava 1985 foundation. Mine Water and the Environment 23(2):91–95, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10230-004-0045-z

  22. Skempton AW (1954) The pore-pressure coefficient A and B. Geotechnique 4(4):143–147, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1954.4.4.143

  23. Skempton AW, Brogan JM (2015) Experiments on piping in sandy gravels. Geotechnique 44(3):449–460, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/geotl994.44.3.449

  24. Sladen JA, D’Hollander RD, Krahn J (2011) The liquefaction of sands, a collapse surface approach. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 22(4):564–578, DOI: 10.1139A85-076

  25. Take WA, Beddoe RA, Davoodi-Bilesavar R Phillips R (2015) Effect of antecedent groundwater conditions on the triggering of static liquefaction landslides. Landslides 12:469–479, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/S10346-014-0496-7

  26. The Xinhua News Agency (2015) The Shenzhen landslide field report. Retrieved December 28, 2015, http://www.gd.xinhuanet.com/ztl5/szsthp/

  27. Wang G Sassa K (2009) Seismic loading impacts on excess pore-water pressure maintain landslide triggered flowslides. Earth Surface Processes andLandforms 34(2):232–241, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1708

  28. Wei F, Gao K, Cui P, Hu K, Xu J, Zhang Q Bi B (2006) Method of debris flow prediction based on a numerical weather forecast and its application. Debris Flow 90:37–46, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2495/deb060041

  29. Xu Q, Peng D, Li W, Dong X, Tang M, Hu W, Tang M, Liu F (2016) The 20 December 2015, catastrophic construction waste landslide at Hongao dumpsite, Guangming New District, Shenzhen, China. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussion 17:270–299, DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2016-196

  30. Yin Y, Li B, Wang W, Zhan L, Xue Q, Gao Y, Zhang N, Chen H, Liu T, Li A (2016) Mechanism of the December 2015 catastrophic landslide at the Shenzhen landfill and controlling geotechnical risks of urbanization. Engineering 2(2):230–249, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2016.02.005

  31. Zhang DX (2009) A rapid loess flowslide triggered by irrigation in china. Landslides 6(1):55–60, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-008-0135-2

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No.2018YFC1505503); the Science and Technology Service Network Initiative (No. KFJ-SW-STS-180) and the Key Scientific Research project of Higher Education Institutions, Henan Province, China (No.20A560024).

Author information

Correspondence to Fangqiang Wei.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, K., Zhang, S., Wei, F. et al. A Case Study of the Rapid and Long Runout Landslide at Hong’ao Waste Disposal Site in Shenzhen, China. KSCE J Civ Eng 24, 727–739 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-020-1399-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Waste disposal site
  • Municipal solid waste
  • Landslide
  • Static liquefaction
  • Groundwater table