Advertisement

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 3875–3888 | Cite as

Mechanical Properties of Alkali Activated Fly Ash Geopolymer Stabilized Expansive Clay

  • Anant Lal Murmu
  • Anamika Jain
  • Anjan PatelEmail author
Geotechnical Engineering
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

It has always been a challenge for civil engineers to lay roads in the areas covered by expansive soil. The expansive soil undergoes extreme phase changes from being hard in hot summer to being slushy and without strength in monsoon season. Thus, the engineering properties of the expansive soil must be improved before laying the roads. This paper presents the results of experimental work carried out to improve the engineering properties of an expansive clay i.e. black cotton soil (BCS) by using fly ash geopolymer. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solutions were mixed in different ratios (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2) and used for synthesizing the geopolymer. The stabilized BCS samples were characterized in the laboratory for various properties viz., Atterberg’s limits, free swell ratio, and unconfined compressive strength. The untreated and treated BCS samples were also analyzed for their microstructural and morphological properties by using the SEM (scanning electron microscope) images and the XRD (X-ray fiffractometer) and FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) spectra. An increase in the unconfined compressive strength and reduction in free swell ratio as well as shrinkage limit was observed after stabilization with geopolymer. Results also indicate binding of soil particles and formation of dense microstructure resulting in higher strength and less swelling and shrinkage characteristics. Furthermore, the bender element test was used to indicate the improvement in stiffness of the geopolymer stabilized expansive soil in terms of shear wave velocity.

Keywords

stabilization black cotton soil fly ash geopolymer unconfined compressive strength bender element test 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Not Applicable.

References

  1. Armstrong, J. A. and Dann, S. E. (2000). “Investigation of zeolite scales formed in the Bayer process.” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 41, Nos. 1–3, pp. 89–97, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1387-1811(00)00276-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM D 698-12e2 (2012). Standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using standard effort (12,400 ft-Ibf / ft 3 (600 kN-m/m 1)), D 698-12e2, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  3. ASTM D 2166 (2016). Standard test method for unconfined compressive strength of cohesive soil, D 2166, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  4. ASTM C 618-17a (2017). Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete, C 618-17a, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Bagewadi, S. V. and Rakaraddi, P. G. (2015). “Effect of geopolymer on the strength of black cotton soil.” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 229–231, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/40552(301)16.2.Moses.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baser, O. (2009). Stabilization of expansive soils using waste marble dust, PhD Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  7. Basma, A. A., Al-Homoud, A. S., Husein Malkawi, A. I., and Al-Bashabsheh, M. A. (1996). “Swelling-shrinkage behavior of natural expansive clays.” Applied Clay Science, Vol. 11, Nos. 2–4, pp. 211–227, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-1317(96)00009-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooks, R., Udoeyo, F. F., and Takkalapelli, K. V. (2011). “Geotechnical properties of problem soils stabilized with fly ash and limestone dust in philadelphia.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 711–716, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bui, M. T., Clayton, C. R I., and Priest, J. A. (2010). “The universal void ratio function for small strain shear modulus.” International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, San Diego, California, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  10. Chang, I. and Cho, G.-C. (2014). Elastic wave behaviors of beta-glucan biopolymer-treated residual soil, Geo-Congress 2014 Technical Papers, Geo-Congress, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 1567–1575.Google Scholar
  11. Chavali, R. V. P. and Reddy, P. H. P. (2018). “Volume change behavior of phosphogypsum treated clayey soils contaminated with inorganic acids — A micro level study.” Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 8–18, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3846/16486897.2017.1331168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, F. H. (1975). Foundations on expansive soils, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  13. Chen, L. and Lin, D.-F. (2009). “Stabilization treatment of soft subgrade soil by sewage sludge ash and cement.” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 162, No. 1, pp. 321–327, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.05.060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chetia, M., Baruah, M. P., and Sridharan, A. (2018). “Effect of quarry dust on compaction characteristics of clay.” Contemporary Issues in Geoenvironmental Engineering, Springer International Publishing, pp. 78–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davidovits, J. (1989). “Geopolymers and geopolymeric materials.” Journal of Thermal Analysis, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 429–441, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01904446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davidovits, J. (2015a). 100,000 tones geopolymer concrete: World premiere, https://doi.org/www.davidovits.info [Accessed on February 29, 2019].
  17. Davidovits, J. (2015b). Geopolymer chemistry and applications (4th Ed.), Geopolymer Institute, Saint-Quentin, France.Google Scholar
  18. Duxson, P., Provis, J. L., Lukey, G. C., Mallicoat, S. W., Kriven, W. M., and Van Deventer, J. S. J. (2005). “Understanding the relationship between geopolymer composition, microstructure and mechanical properties.” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 269, Nos. 1–3, pp. 47–58, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.06.060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Etim, R. K., Eberemu, A. O., and Osinubi, K. J. (2017). “Stabilization of black cotton soil with lime and iron ore tailings admixture.” Transportation Geotechnics, Vol. 10, pp. 85–95, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2017.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Folagbade, O. and George, M. (2010). “Groundnut shell ash stabilization of black cotton soil.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 415–428.Google Scholar
  21. Hardjito, D. and Rangan, B. V. (2005). Development and properties of low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete, Research Report GC1, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.Google Scholar
  22. Hossain, K. M. A. and Mol, L. (2011). “Some engineering properties of stabilized clayey soils incorporating natural pozzolans and industrial wastes.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 3495–3501, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.03.042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. IRC 37 (2012). Tentative guidelines for the design of flexible pavements, Report 37, The Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  24. IS 2720 Part VI (1972). Methods of test for soils, Part 6: Determination of shrinkage factors, Report 2720 Part VI, Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  25. Kinuthia, J. M. (2015). “The durability of compressed earth-based masonry blocks.” Eco-Efficient Masonry Bricks and Blocks, Elsevier, pp. 393–421.Google Scholar
  26. Kumar, S. and Kumar, R. (2011). “Mechanical activation of fly ash: Effect on reaction, structure and properties of resulting geopolymer.” Ceramics International, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 533–541, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2010.09.038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kumar, T. A., Robinson, R. G., and Thyagaraj, T. (2018). “Distress of an industrial building constructed on an expansive soil: A case study from India.” Proc. The Institution of Civil Engineers — Forensic Engineering, London, UK, Vol. 171, No. 3, pp. 121–126, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1680/jfoen.18.00005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumar, A. and Sivapullaiah, P. V (2016). “Ground granulated blast furnace slag amended fly ash as an expansive soil stabilizer.” Soils and Foundations, pp. 1–8, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2016.02.004.
  29. Lee, B., Kim, G., Kim, R., Cho, B., Lee, S., and Chon, C. (2017). “Strength development properties of geopolymer paste and mortar with respect to amorphous Si/Al ratio of fly ash.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 151, pp. 512–519, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.06.078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee, W. K. W. and Van Deventer, J. S. J. (2003). “Use of infrared spectroscopy to study geopolymerization of heterogeneous amorphous aluminosilicates.” Langmuir, Vol. 19, No. 21, pp. 8726–8734, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1021/la026127e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liew, Y.-M., Heah, C.-Y., Mohd Mustafa, A. B., and Kamarudin, H. (2016). “Structure and properties of clay-based geopolymer cements: A review.” Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 83, pp. 595–629, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2016.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miao, S., Shen, Z., Wang, X., Luo, F., Huang, X., and Wei, C. (2017). “Stabilization of highly expansive black cotton soils by means of geopolymerization.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 10, pp. 1–9, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murmu, A. L., Dhole, N., and Patel, A. (2018). “Stabilisation of black cotton soil for subgrade application using fly ash geopolymer.” Road Materials and Pavement Design, pp. 1–19, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2018.1530131.
  34. Murmu, A. L. and Patel, A. (2018). “Towards sustainable bricks production: An overview.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 165, pp. 112–125, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.01.038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nadgouda, K. A. and Hegde, R. A. (2010). “The effect of lime stabilization on properties of black cotton soil.” Indian Geotechnical Conference, Mumbai, India, pp. 511–514.Google Scholar
  36. Nelson, J. D. and Miller, D. J. (1992). Expansive soils: Problems and practices in foundation and pavement engineering, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  37. NETRA-CSIR (2017). Geopolymer concrete road using NTPC-DADRI fly ash, NETRA-CSIR, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India. p. 21.Google Scholar
  38. Osinubi, K. J., Ijimdiya, T. S., and Nmadu, I. (2009). “Lime stabilization of black cotton soil using bagasse ash as admixture.” Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 62–64, pp. 3–10, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.62-64.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pappu, A., Saxena, M., and Asolekar, S. R. (2007). “Solid wastes generation in India and their recycling potential in building materials.” Building and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 2311–2320, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.04.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parihar, N. S., Garlapati, V. K., and Ganguly, R. (2018). “Stabilization of black cotton soil using waste glass.” Handbook of Environmental Materials Management, Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  41. Patankar, S. V., Jamkar, S. S., and Ghugal, Y. M. (2013). “Effect of fly ash fineness on workability and compressive strength of geopolymer concrete.” The Indian Concrete Journal, No. April 2013, pp. 57–62.Google Scholar
  42. Patel, A., Singh, D. N., and Singh, K. K. (2010). “Performance analysis of Piezo-Ceramic elements in soils.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 681–694, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-010-9328-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Patel, A., Bartake, P., and Singh, D. (2009). “An empirical relationship for determining shear wave velocity in granular materials accounting for grain morphology.” Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 1–10, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1520/GTJ100796.Google Scholar
  44. Patel, A., Singh, K. K., and Singh, D. N. (2012). “Application of piezoceramic elements for determining elastic properties of soils.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 30, pp. 407–417, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-011-9476-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Phummiphan, I., Horpibulsuk, S., Sukmak, P., Chinkulkijniwat, A., Arulrajah, A., and Shen, S. (2016). “Stabilisation of marginal lateritic soil using high calcium fly ash-based geopolymer.” Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 629, No. January, pp. 1–15, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2015.1132632.Google Scholar
  46. Pourakbar, S., Asadi, A., Huat, B. B. K., Cristelo, N., and Fasihnikoutalab, M. H. (2017). “Application of alkali-activated agro-waste reinforced with wollastonite fibers in soil stabilization.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 1–11, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Salahudeen, A. B., Eberemu, A. O., and Osinubi, K. J. (2014). “Assessment of cement kiln dust-treated expansive soil for the construction of flexible pavements.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 923–931, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-014-9769-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sivapullaiah, P. V., Prashanth, J. P., and Sridharan, A. (1996). “Effect of fly ash on the index properties of black cotton soil.” Soils and Foundations, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 97–103, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.37.3229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sridharan, A. (2014). “Soil clay mineralogy and physico-chemical mechanisms governing the fine-grained soil behaviour.” Indian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 371–399, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-014-0136-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sridharan, A. and Prakash, K. (2000). “Classification procedures for expansive soils.” Proc. The ICE — Geotechnical Engineering, London, UK, pp. 235–240.Google Scholar
  51. Sridharan, A., Prashanth, J. P., and Sivapullaiah, P. V (1997). “Effect of fly ash on the unconfined compressive strength of black cotton soil.” Proc. The Institution of Civil Engineers — Ground Improvement, London, UK, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 169–175, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1680/gi.1997.010304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sukmak, P., Horpibulsuk, S., Shen, S. L., Chindaprasirt, P., and Suksiripattanapong, C. (2013). “Factors influencing strength development in clay-fly ash geopolymer.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 47, pp. 1125–1136, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.05.104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wiggins, J. H., Slosson, J. E., and Krohn, J. P. (1978). Natural hazards: Earthquake, landslide, expansive soil loss models, Report National Technical Information Services, US Department of Commerce, Sprinfield, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  54. Xiao, H., Yao, K., Liu, Y., Goh, S.-H., and Lee, F.-H. (2018). “Bender element measurement of small strain shear modulus of cement-treated marine clay — Effect of test setup and methodology.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 172, pp. 433–447, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Xu, H. and Van Deventer, J. S. J. (2000). “The geopolymerisation of alumino-silicate minerals.” International Journal of Mineral Processing, Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 247–266, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-7516(99)00074-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang, Z., Provis, J. L., Zou, J., Reid, A., and Wang, H. (2016). “Toward an indexing approach to evaluate fly ashes for geopolymer manufacture.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 85, pp. 163–173, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2016.04.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Civil EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations