Advertisement

Experimental Study on Seepage and Stress of Single-fracture Radiation Flow

  • Xin Zhang
  • Junrui Chai
  • Yuan QinEmail author
  • Jing Cao
  • Cheng Cao
Hydraulic Engineering
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Studying the stress distribution and water flow law of rocks under stress and seepage pressure in different directions can provide a certain basis for rock stability. In this experiment, a test system instrument for coupling direct shear and seepage of rock joints was developed to analyze the fracture seepage and shear stress of the relatively smooth surface formed by gypsum specimens. The seepage considered in this study refers to the groundwater at a depth of 80–150 m below the surface. Moreover, a radiation flow model was established, and a new law was obtained by fitting the relationship between flow rate and mechanical aperture. The shear process was divided into three phases. Normal stress and contact surface undulation had a considerable influence on shear stress. A two-dimensional numerical model showed that the vortices were the important cause of damage to the radiation flow. Increasing the seepage pressure increased the flow velocity between the fractures. The maximum flow velocity on one side of the same shear direction was larger than that on the other side.

Keywords

single fracture radiation flow seepage shear stress mechanical aperture 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adrian, R. J. (2006). “Structure of turbulent boundary layers.” Coherent Flow Structures at Earth’s Surface, J. G. Venditti, J. L. Best, M. Church, R. J. Hardy, Eds., John Wiley & Sons, pp. 741–773.Google Scholar
  2. Bai, B., He, Y., Li, X., Li, J., Huang, X., and Zhu, J. (2017). “Experimental and analytical study of the overall heat transfer coefficient of water flowing through a single fracture in a granite core.” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 116, pp. 79–90, DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.01.020.Google Scholar
  3. Cao, C., Xu, Z. G., Chai, J. R., Qin, Y., and Tan, R. (2018). “Mechanical and hydraulic behaviors in a single fracture with asperities crushed during shear.” International Journal of Geomechanics, Vol. 18, No. 11, pp. 04018148-1-04018148-10, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0001277.Google Scholar
  4. Chai, J. R. and Xu, W. S. (2011). “Coupling analysis of unsteady seepage and stress fields in discrete fractures network of rock mass in dam foundation.” Science China Technological Sciences, Vol. 54, No. s1, pp. 133–139, DOI: 10.1007/s11431-011-4630-7.Google Scholar
  5. Chamkha, A., Abbasbandy, S., and Rashad, A. M. (2015). “Non-Darcy natural convection flow for non-Newtonian nanofluid over cone saturated in porous medium with uniform heat and volume fraction fluxes.” International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 422–437, DOI: 10.1108/HFF-02-2014-0027.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Coimbra, C. F. M. and Rangel, R. H. (2002). “General solution of the particle momentum equation in unsteady Stokes flows.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 370, pp. 53–72, DOI: 10.1017/S0022112098001967.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Daugherty, R. L. and Franzini, J. B. (1977). “Fluid mechanics with engineering applications.” 7th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, pp. 192–564.Google Scholar
  8. Develi, K. and Babadagli, T. (2015). “Experimental and visual analysis of single-phase flow through rough fracture replicas.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Vol. 73, pp. 139–155, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2014.11.002.Google Scholar
  9. Dogonchi, A. S., Hatami, M., and Domairry, G. (2015). “Motion analysis of a spherical solid particle in plane Couette Newtonian fluid flow.” Powder Technology, Vol. 274, pp. 186–192, DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2015.01.018.Google Scholar
  10. Dontsov, E. V. and Peirce, A. P. (2016). “A multiscale Implicit Level Set Algorithm (ILSA) to model hydraulic fracture propagation incorporating combined viscous, toughness, and leak-off asymptotics.” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering, Vol. 313, pp. 53–84, DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2016.09.017.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. EI-Hakiem, M. A. (2000). “MHD oscillatory flow on free convection-radiation through a porous medium with constant suction velocity.” Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials, Vol. 220, Nos. 2–3, pp. 271–276, DOI: 10.1016/S0304-8853(00)00444-3.Google Scholar
  12. Esaki, T., Du, S., Mitani, Y., Ikusada, K., and Jing, L. (1999). “Development of a shear-flow test apparatus and determination of coupled properties for a single rock joint.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 641–650, DOI: 10.1016/S0148-9062(99)00044-3.Google Scholar
  13. Giwelli, A. A., Matsuki, K., Sakaguchi, K., and Kizaki, A. (2014). “Effects of non-uniform traction and specimen height in the direct shear test on stress and deformation in a rock fracture.” International Journal for Numerical & Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 37, No. 14, pp. 2186–2204, DOI: 10.1002/nag.2129.Google Scholar
  14. He, G., Wang, E., and Liu, X. (2016). “Modified governing equation and numerical simulation of seepage flow in a single fracture with threedimensional roughness.” Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1–20, DOI: 10.1007/s12517-015-2036-8.Google Scholar
  15. Huang, T. H., Chang, C. S., and Chao, C. Y. (2002). “Experimental and mathematical modeling for fracture of rock joint with regular asperities.” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 69, No. 17, pp. 1977–1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7944(02)00072-3.Google Scholar
  16. Jeong, W. C., Cho, Y. S., and Song, J. W. (2001). “A numerical study of fluid flow and solute transport in a variable-aperture fracture using geostatistical method.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 357–369, DOI: 10.1007/BF02829109.Google Scholar
  17. Jin, Y., Dong, J., Zhang, X., Li, X., and Wu, Y. (2017). “Scale and size effects on fluid flow through self-affine rough fractures.” International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, Vol. 105, pp. 443–451, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2016.10.010.Google Scholar
  18. Kang, S. and Sotiropoulos, F. (2015). “Large-eddy simulation of threedimensional turbulent free surface flow past a complex stream restoration structure.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 141, No. 10, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001034.Google Scholar
  19. Li, B., Liu, R., and Jiang, Y. (2016). “Influences of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect on nonlinear flow behavior at single fracture intersections.” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 538, pp. 440–453, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.04.053.Google Scholar
  20. Liu, R., Jiang, Y., and Li, B. (2016). “Effects of intersection and deadend of fractures on nonlinear flow and particle transport in rock fracture networks.” Geosciences Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 415–426, DOI: 10.1007/s12303-015-0057-7.Google Scholar
  21. Ma, X., Tian, M., Zhang, J., Tang, L., and Liu, F. (2018). “Flow pattern identification for two-phase flow in a U-bend and its contiguous straight tubes.” Experimental Thermal & Fluid Science, Vol. 93, pp. 218–234, DOI: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2017.12.024.Google Scholar
  22. McClure, M. W., and Kang, C. A. (2017). “A three-dimensional reservoir, wellbore, and hydraulic fracturing simulator that is compositional and thermal, tracks proppant and water solute transport, includes non-darcy and non-newtonian flow, and Handles fracture closure.” SPE Reservoir Simulation Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Montgomery, TX. USA, DOI: 10.2118/182593-MS.Google Scholar
  23. Nguyen-Thoi, T., Phung-Van, P., Ho-Huu, V., and Le-Anh, L. (2015). “An Edge-based Smoothed Finite Element Method (ES-FEM) for dynamic analysis of 2D fluid-solid interaction problems.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 641–650, DOI: 10.1007/s12205-015-0293-4.Google Scholar
  24. Oda, M., Takemura, T., and Aoki, T. (2002). “Damage growth and permeability change in triaxial compression tests of Inada granite.” Mechanics of Materials, Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 313–331, DOI: 10.1016/S0167-6636(02)00115-1.Google Scholar
  25. Peng, Y., Li, Y., and Zhao, J. (2016). “A novel approach to simulate the stress and displacement fields induced by hydraulic fractures under arbitrarily distributed inner pressure.” Journal of Natural Gas Science & Engineering, Vol. 35, pp. 1079–1087, DOI: 10.1016/j.jngse.2016.09.054.Google Scholar
  26. Pisano, A. (2017). “From tubes and catheters to the basis of hemodynamics: The Hagen-Poiseuille equation.” Physics for Anesthesiologists, pp. 55–61, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-57330-4_7.Google Scholar
  27. Qian, J., Zhan, H., Zhao, W., and Sun, F. (2005). “Experimental study of turbulent unconfined groundwater flow in a single fracture.” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 311, Nos. 1–4, pp. 134–142, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.01.013.Google Scholar
  28. Raptis, A. (1998). “Radiation and free convection flow through a porous medium.” International Communications in Heat & Mass Transfer, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 289–295, DOI: 10.1016/S0735-1933(98)00016-5.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  29. Rashidi, M. M., Bagheri, S., Momoniat, E., and Freidoonimehr, N. (2015). “Entropy analysis of convective MHD flow of third grade non-Newtonian fluid over a stretching sheet.” Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 77–85, DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.012.Google Scholar
  30. Rong, G., Hou, D., Yang, J., Cheng, L., and Zhou, C. (2017). “Experimental study of flow characteristics in non-mated rock fractures considering 3D definition of fracture surfaces.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 220, pp. 152–163, DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2017.02.005.Google Scholar
  31. Seo, H., Kang, T., Felix, M. L., and Lee, S. (2017). “A study to determine the location of perforated drainpipe in a levee for controlling the seepage line.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 153–160, DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1330-2.Google Scholar
  32. Sheikholeslami, M., Ganji, D. D., Javed, M. Y., and Ellahi, R. (2015). “Effect of thermal radiation on magnetohydrodynamics nanofluid flow and heat transfer by means of two phase model.” Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials, Vol. 374, pp. 36–43, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2014.08.021.Google Scholar
  33. Subbarao, A., Prasad, V. R., Nagendra, N., Reddy, N. B., and Beg, O. A. (2016). “Non-similar computational solution for boundary layer flows of non-newtonian fluid from an inclined plate with thermal slip.” Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 795–807, DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.jafm.68.225.24664.Google Scholar
  34. Tang, Z. C., Xia, C. C., Jiao, Y. Y., and Wong, L. N. Y. (2016). “Closure model with asperity interaction in normal contact for rock joint.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Vol. 83, pp. 170–173, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2015.12.006.Google Scholar
  35. Wang, Y. and Su, B. Y. (2002). “Research on the behavior of fluid flow in a single fracture and its equivalent hydraulic aperture.” Advances in Water Science, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 61–68.Google Scholar
  36. Witherspoon, P. A., Wang, J. S. Y., Iwai, K., and Gale, J. E. (1979). “Validity of Cubic Law for fluid flow in a deformable rock fracture.” Water Resources Research, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 1016–1024, DOI: 10.1029/WR016i006p01016.Google Scholar
  37. Xia, C. C., Qian, X., Lin, P., Xiao, W. M., and Gui, Y. (2016). “Experimental investigation of nonlinear flow characteristics of real rock joints under different contact conditions.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 143, No. 3, pp. 04016090-1-04016090-14, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0001238.Google Scholar
  38. Xu, J., Xie, X., Yang, C., and Shen, Z. (2017). “Test and analysis of hydraulic fracture characteristics of rock single crack.” Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 4, No. 3, DOI: 10.4172/2476-2296.1000164.Google Scholar
  39. Yun, W. C., Dong, H. S., Cho, S. E., Im, E. S., and Kim, D. S. (2013). “Seepage behavior of drainage zoning in a concrete faced gravel-fill dam via centrifuge and numerical modeling.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 949–958, DOI: 10.1007/s12205-013-0215-2.Google Scholar
  40. Zhang, C., Zhang, Y., Li, Z., Zhang, T., Liu, T., and Xie, Y. (2016). “Experimental study of seepage characteristics of single rock fracture based on stress states and stress history.” Global Geology, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 177–181, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-9736.2016.03.06.Google Scholar
  41. Zhao, Y., Zhang, L., Wang, W., Tang, J., Lin, H., and Wan, W. (2017). “Transient pulse test and morphological analysis of single rock fractures.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Vol. 91, pp. 139–154, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2016.11.016.Google Scholar
  42. Zou, L., Jing, L., and Cvetkovic, V. (2017). “Shear-enhanced nonlinear flow in rough-walled rock fractures.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Vol. 97, pp. 33–45, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2017.06.001.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Zhang
    • 1
  • Junrui Chai
    • 1
  • Yuan Qin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jing Cao
    • 1
  • Cheng Cao
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region of ChinaXi’an University of TechnologyXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations