Advertisement

Investigation of Rebar Exposure Issues of Diaphragm Wall and Influencing Factors Analysis

  • Liyuan TongEmail author
  • Qiwen Guo
  • Hongbo Che
  • Mingfei Zhang
  • Huangsong Pan
  • Hongjiang Li
Geotechnical Engineering
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

The exposure of rebar in diaphragm wall was discovered after excavation in more than 20 subway stations, along the lines 1 to 4 in Suzhou, China. Such phenomena were investigated from strata formation, hydrogeological condition, construction techniques, adjacent surcharge load and other aspects. Based on field investigation, in situ testing and numerical simulation, the disturbance of trenching operations and the main factors that affect the stability of the diaphragm wall during the trenching process are analyzed comprehensively. The results show that the deformation behavior and stability of slurry trench walls are mainly influenced by strata characteristics, adjacent surcharge loading, formation of bentonite filter cake on trench walls, pressure of a confined aquifer, height of slurry filling and slurry density. The underground water pressure in the confined aquifer of silty soil layers is considered as one of the main controlling factors, which is verified by the subsequently dewatering and trenching tests. During the construction process, the deformation and stability of the trench walls can be improved by adjusting and controlling the crucial controlling factors. Further, relevant remedial measures as well as the preventive methods during the process of constructing diaphragm walls and subsequent soil excavation are addressed.

Keywords

subway station diaphragm wall slurry trench steel bar exposure influencing factors 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arai, Y., Kusakabe, O., Murata, O., and Konishi, S. (2008). “A numerical study on ground displacement and stress during and after the installation of deep circular diaphragm walls and soil excavation.” Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 791–807, DOI: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2007.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM (2016). Standard test method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and split-barrel sampling of soils, D 1586-11, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, DOI: 10.1520/D1586_D1586M-18.Google Scholar
  3. Burland, J. B., Longworth, T. I., and Moore, J. F. A. (1977). “A study of ground movement and progressive failure caused by a deep excavation in Oxford Clay.” Géotechnique, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 557–591, DOI: 10.1680/geot.1977.27.4.557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, J. W. and Chen, F. C. (2007). “A case study on trench collapse of deep diaphragm wall.” International Symposium on Field Measurements in Geomechanics, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, pp. 1–12, DOI: 10.1061/40940(307)27.Google Scholar
  5. Elson, W. K. (1968). “An experimental investigation of the stability of slurry trenches.” Géotechnique, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 37–49, DOI: 10.1680/geot.1968.18.1.37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Filz, G. M., Adams, T., and Davidson, R. R. (2004). “Stability of long trenches in sand supported by bentonite-water slurry.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 130, no. 9, pp. 915–921, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241-2004(130:9-915).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fox, P. J. (2004). “Analytical solutions for stability of slurry trench.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 130, no. 7, pp. 749–758, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:7(749).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gao, X., Liu, S., Tong, L., and Lou, C. (2011). “Deformation behavior of retaining walls in deep excavations in suzhou subway line 1 of China.” Geo-Frontiers Congress 2011, DOI: 10.1061/41165(397)342.Google Scholar
  9. Hashash, Y. M. A., Marulanda, C., Ghaboussi, J., and Jung, S. (2003). “Systematic update of a deep excavation model using field performance data.” Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 477–488, DOI: 10.1016/S0266-352X(03)00056-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hsieh, P. G. and Ou, C. Y. (1998). “Shape of ground surface settlement profiles caused by excavation.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1004–1017, DOI: 10.1139/t98-056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hsiung, B. C. B., Yang, K. H., Aila, W., and Hung, C. (2016). “Threedimensional effects of a deep excavation on wall deflections in loose to medium dense sands.” Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 80, pp. 138–151, DOI: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2016.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lei, G. H., Wang, X., and Lei, G. G. (2006). “Stability influencing factors and instability mechanism of slurry-supported excavations.” Advances in Science and Technology of Water Resources, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 82–86, DOI: 10.3880/j.issn.1006-7647.2006.01.024.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  13. Liao, S. M., Wei, S. F., and Shen, S. L. (2016). “Structural responses of existing metro stations to adjacent deep excavations in Suzhou, China.” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 04015089, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lings, M. L., Ng, C. W. W., and Nash, D. F. T. (1994). “The lateral pressure of wet concrete in diaphragm wall panels cast under bentonite.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 163–172, DOI: 10.1680/igeng.1994.26469.Google Scholar
  15. Liu, G. B., Huang, Y. X., and Liu, J. H. (2000). “Analysis of the stability of slurry trench with a surcharge and engineering application (in Chinese).” Journal of Tongji University, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 267–271, DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:0253-374X.2000.03.004.Google Scholar
  16. Liu, G. B., Huang, P. J., Shi, W., and Ng, C. W. W. (2016). “Performance of a deep excavation and its effect on adjacent tunnels in shanghai soft clay.” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1–14, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morgenstern, N. R. and Amir-Tahmasseb, I. (1965). “The stability of a slurry trench in cohesionless soils.” Géotechnique, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 387–395, DOI: 10.1680/geot.1965.15.4.387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ng, C. W. W. (1992). An evaluation of soil-structure interaction associated with a multi-propped excavation, PhD thesis, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
  19. Ng, C. W. W. and Yan, R. W. M. (1998). “Stress transfer and deformation mechanisms around a diaphragm wall panel.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 124, no. 7, pp. 638–648, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1998)124:7(638).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oblozinsky, P., Ugai, K., Katagiri, M., Saitoh, K., Ishii, T., Masuda, T., and Kuwabara, K. (2001). “A design method for slurry trench wall stability in sandy ground based on the elasto-plastic FEM.” Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 145–159, DOI: 10.1016/S0266-352X(00)00028-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ou, C. Y., Hsieh, P. G., and Chiou, D. C. (1993). “Characteristics of ground surface settlement during excavation.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 758–767, DOI: 10.1139/t93-068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ou, C. Y., Liao, J. T., and Cheng, W. L. (2000). “Building response and ground movements induced by a deep excavation.” Géotechnique, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 209–220, DOI: 10.1680/geot.2000.50.3.209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Poh, T. Y. and Wong, I. H. (1998). “Effects of construction of diaphragm wall panels on adjacent ground: field trial.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 124, no. 8, pp. 749–756, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1998)124:8(749)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shen, C. and Zhou, S. H. (2013). “Local stability of slurry trench in sandwiched sand layer with confined water pressure.” Fourth International Conference on Transportation Engineering, ASCE, Chengdu, China, pp. 2540–2548.Google Scholar
  25. Tan, Y. and Wei, B. (2012). “Observed behaviors of a long and deep excavation constructed by cut-and-cover technique in shanghai soft clay.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 69–88, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tsai, J. S., Chang, C. C., and Jou, L. D. (1998). “Lateral extrusion analysis of sandwiched weak soil in slurry trench.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 124, no. 11, pp. 1082–1090, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1998)124:11(1082).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tsai, J. S., Jou, L. D., and Hsieh, H. S. (2000). “A full-scale stability experiment on a diaphragm wall trench.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 379–392, DOI: 10.1139/t99-122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wentworth, C. K. (1922). “A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments.” The Journal of Geology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 377–392. DOI:10.1086/622910. JSTOR 30063207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wong, G. C. Y. (1984). “Stability analysis of slurry trenches.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 110, no. 10, pp. 1577–1590, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1984)110:11(1577).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wu, C., Chen, J., Ye, G., Wang, J., and Zhou, H. (2010). “Deformation characteristics of foundation pits of subway stations in Suzhou.” Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 32, Supp. 1, pp. 458–462.Google Scholar
  31. Yoo, C. and Lee, D. (2008). “Deep excavation-induced ground surface movement characteristics-A numerical investigation.” Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 231–252, DOI: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2007005.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zheng, G., Yan, Z. X., Lei, H. Y., and Lei, Y. (2007). “Field observation and finite element numerical simulation analysis of effect on adjacent piles due to excavation.” Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 638–643, DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-4548.2007.05.002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liyuan Tong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qiwen Guo
    • 1
  • Hongbo Che
    • 1
  • Mingfei Zhang
    • 1
  • Huangsong Pan
    • 1
  • Hongjiang Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Institution of Geotechnical Engineering, Transportation CollegeSoutheast UniversityNanjing, JiangsuChina

Personalised recommendations