KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 4010–4021 | Cite as

Stability Analysis for Cofferdams of Pile Wall Frame Structures

  • Runze Xue
  • Shean BieEmail author
  • Linlin Guo
  • Peiliang Zhang
Structural Engineering


Pile wall frame structures (PWFSs) are double-wall sheet-pile structures with an integrally precast framework of reinforced concrete to connect double rows of closely placed piles. An engineering test on a cofferdam of PWFSs was conducted in Binzhou, where lateral displacement along pile shaft was carefully monitored during the hydraulic filling process. A 3D finite element model (FEM) of the test was established to study the stability failure mechanism of PWFSs. Then, a design method for PWFSs was proposed through a structural stability analysis based on the limit equilibrium method, with special consideration of the cutting pile force influenced by row spacing. According to FE results, lateral pile displacements drawn from the FEM correspond well with field observations, and earth pressures applied on closely spaced piles are in line with Rankine’s theory. Results of the theoretical analysis indicate that the control slip surface lies on the bottom of a soil layer with a poorer shear strength index. The effects of framework width, pile spacing, pile length and diameter on structural stability are also evaluated. The feasibility of PWFSs has been verified by an engineering test, and the simplified design method established here is reasonable and effective for structural stability prediction.


double-wall sheet-pile structure numerical modelling stability analysis design method cofferdam limit equilibrium method 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research was financially supported by the project of Tianjin marine development with science and technology (Grant No. KJXH2014-11).


  1. BSI (2004). Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules, BS EN 1997-1: 2004, British Standards Institution, London, Britain.Google Scholar
  2. BSI (2010). Maritime works - Part 2: Code of practice for the design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins, BS 6349-2:2010, British Standards Institution, London, Britain.Google Scholar
  3. Chen, W. J. (1997). Port hydraulic structures, China Communication Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  4. Cui, C., Huang, J., Luan, M., and Li, M. (2010). “Nonlinear numerical study on performance of cofferdam with double-walled steel sheet piles.” Proc. 20th Int. Offshore Polar Eng. Conf., ISOPE, Beijing, China, pp. 670–673.Google Scholar
  5. Georgiadis, K., Sloan, S. W., and Lyamin, A. V. (2015). “Ultimate lateral pressure of two side-by-side piles in clay.” Géotechnique, Thomas Telford Ltd., Vol. 63, No. 9, pp.733–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hong, S. H., Lee, F. H., and Yong, K. Y. (2003). “Three-dimensional pile-soil interaction in soldier-piled excavations.” Comput. Geotech., Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 81–107.Google Scholar
  7. Keshavarz, A. and Pooresmaeil, Z. (2016). “Static and seismic active lateral earth pressure coefficients for c-φ soils.” Geomech. Eng., Techno Press, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 657–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Khan, M., Takemura, O., and Kusakabe, O. (2006). “Centrifuge model tests on behavior of double sheet pile wall cofferdam on clay.” Int. J. Phys. Model Geo., ICE Publishing Ltd., Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
  9. Kim, G. H., Joh, H. W., and Shin, Y. S. (2013). “A case study of retaining wall using pre-stressed high-strength concrete (PHC) pile for deep excavation work.” Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publications, Vols. 724–725, pp. 1478–1481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim, H. J., Mission, J. L. C., and Park, I. S. (2007). “Analysis of static axial load capacity of single piles and large diameter shafts using nonlinear load transfer curves.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, KSCE, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kou, H. L., Chu, J., Guo, W., and Zhang, M. Y. (2016). “Field study of residual forces developed in PHC pipe piles.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, NRCC, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 696–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kumara, J. J., Kurashina, T., and Kikuchi, Y. (2016). “Effects of pile geometry on bearing capacity of open-ended piles driven into sands.” Geomech. Eng., Techno Press, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, C. J., Chen, H. T., Lin, E. C., Huang, W. S., Wei, Y. C., and Chiang, K. H. (2007a). “Deformation of vertical excavation with self-supported double soldier pile wall system.” Proc. 16th Int. Offshore Polar Eng. Conf., ISOPE, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 1427–1432.Google Scholar
  14. Lee, C. J., Chen, H. T., Wei, Y. C., Lin, Y. C., Huang, W. S., and Chiang, K. H. (2007b). “Centrifuge modeling of a self-supported double soldier-piled wall in sandy soil.” J. GeoEngineering, Taiwan Geotechnical Society, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 97–109.Google Scholar
  15. Lee, I., Kim, D., Kim, K., and Lee, S. (2016). “Earth pressure on a vertical shaft considering the arching effect in c-Χ soil.” Geomech. Eng., Techno Press, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 879–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee, C. J., Wei, Y. C., Chen, H. T., Chiang, K. H., Lin, Y. C., and Huang, W. S. (2011). “Stability analysis of cantilever double soldier-piled walls in sandy soil.” J. Chin. Inst. Eng., CIE, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 449–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li, C. (2013). “Numerical modelling study of the load sharing law of anti-sliding piles based on the soil arching effect for Erliban landslide, china.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, KSCE, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 1251–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li, X., Su, L., He, S., and Xu, J. (2015). “Limit equilibrium analysis of seismic stability of slopes reinforced with a row of piles.” Int. J. Numer. Anal. Met., John Wiley & Sons Inc., Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 1241–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li, W., Zhang, P. L., Bie, S. A., Li, Z. J., Li, X., Liu, X., Liu, F. Q., Liu, F. S., Ding, W. Z., Chen, Q., and Mi, L. F. (2016). Pile wall frame structure, CN 103276691 B, The State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  20. Liu, R., Zhou, L., Lian, J. J., and Ding, H. Y. (2015). “Behavior of monopile foundations for offshore wind farms in sand.” J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng., ASCE, Vol. 142, No. 1, p. 04015010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mendjel, D. and Messast, S. (2012). “Development of limit equilibrium method as optimization in slope stability analysis.” Struct. Eng. Mech., Techno Press, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 336–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mitobe, Y., Adityawan, M. B., Min, R., Tanaka, H., Otsushi, K., and Kurosawa, T. (2016). “Experimental study on embankment reinforcement by steel sheet pile structure against tsunami overflow.” Coast. Eng. J., World Scientific Publishing Co., Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 1640018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mizutani, T., Akutagawa, H., Yonezawa, H., Takahashi, K., and Kikuchi, Y. (1996). Static behavior of double sheet-pile wall structures with high rigidity partitions, Kawasaki Steel Technical Report No. 35, Publication of Kawasaki Steel Co., Yokohama, Japan, pp. 44–51.Google Scholar
  24. MOT (2009). Code for design and construction for quay wall of sheet pile, JTS 167-3-2009, Ministry of Transport of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, China (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  25. Ohori, K., Shoji, Y., Ueda, H., Hara, M., Kawai, Y., and Shiota, K. (1984). Elasto-plastic analysis of the double sheet pile wall structure, Kawasaki Steel Technical Report No. 9, Publication of Kawasaki Steel Co., Yokohama, Japan, pp. 79–88.Google Scholar
  26. Ohori, K., Takahashi, K., Kawai, Y., and Shiota, K. (1988). “Static analysis model for double sheet-pile wall structures.” J. Geotech. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 114, No. 7, pp. 810–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sawaguchi, M. (1974). “Lateral behavior of a double sheet pile wall structure.” Soils Found., JGS, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shen, R F., Leung, C. F., and Chow, Y. K. (2013). “Physical and numerical modeling of drag load development on a model end-bearing pile.” Geomech. Eng., Techno Press, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 195–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tinti, S. and Manucci, A. (2006). “Gravitational stability computed through the limit equilibrium method revisited.” Geophys. J. Int., R. Astron. Soc., Vol. 164, No. 1, pp. 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang, Z. H. and Zhou, J. (2011). “Three-dimensional numerical simulation and earth pressure analysis on double-row piles with consideration of spatial effects.” J. Zhejiang Univ-Sc. A, Zhejiang University Press, Vol. 12, No. 10, pp. 758–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ye, J., Xie, Q., Zhao, X., and Zhao, Y. (2014). “Development of a practical design method for double-row anti-sliding pile system.” EJGE, Oklahoma State University, Vol. 19, pp. 281–293.Google Scholar
  32. Yu, Y., Shang, Y. Q., and Sun, H. Y. (2012). “Bending behavior of double-row stabilizing piles with constructional time delay.” J. Zhejiang Univ-Sc. A, Zhejiang University Press, Vol. 13, No. 8, pp. 596–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhu, Q. and Mo, H. (2012). “Influences of reinforced soil bodies on the performance of structures with double-row piles.” JDCTA, Vol. 6, No. 9, pp. 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and SafetyTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.National Engineering Laboratory for Port Hydraulic Construction TechnologyMinistry of TransportTianjinChina
  3. 3.Tianjin Port & Channel Engineering Co., Ltd.TianjinChina

Personalised recommendations