Transformation from Measured Strains to Viscoelastic Stresses considering Temperature History for Concrete Dams

  • Yaoying HuangEmail author
  • Lei Xiao
  • Tengfei Bao
Structural Engineering


Strain and stress monitoring is an important approach for evaluating the stress state of concrete dams. Since the hydration rate of cement increases with increasing temperature, the parameters of the thermal and mechanical properties of concrete are related to its temperature and temperature history. However, the influence of temperature history has not been taken into account in theories of transformation from measured strains to stresses used for analysis of concrete dams. Hence, significant errors can occur in stress evaluations of concrete dams. In this paper, based on the equivalent age theory and deformation method, we investigate a transformation equation from measured strains to viscoelastic stresses that considers the temperature history and describe the calculation steps in detail. The new algorithm is implemented by a comparative analysis of the viscoelastic stresses transformed from measured strains with and without considering the temperature history for a typical concrete dam located in northwestern China. The analysis results show that the trends of the transformed stresses with and without considering the temperature history are essentially the same, while the maximum normal stress difference is 0.49 MPa in the early stage.


concrete dam measured strain temperature history equivalent age stress evaluation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ardito, R., Maier, G., and Massalongo, G. (2008). “Diagnostic analysis of concrete dams based on seasonal hydrostatic loading.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 30, No. 11, pp. 3176–3185, DOI: Scholar
  2. Bazant, Z. P. and Kaplan, M. F. (1996). Concrete at high temperatures: Material properties and mathematical models, Longman Group Ltd., Essex, UK.Google Scholar
  3. Bellendir, E. N., Gordon, L. A., Khrapkov, A. A., and Skvortsova, A. E. (2017). “Mathematical modeling in systems for operational evaluation of the stress-strain state of the arch-gravity dam at the sayanoshushenskaya hydroelectric power plant.” Power Technology and Engineering, Vol. 50, No. 5, pp. 511–515, DOI: Scholar
  4. Bukenya, P., Moyo, P., Beushausen, H., and Oosthuizen C. (2014). “Health monitoring of concrete dams: A literature review.” J. Civil Struct. Health Monit., Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 235–244, DOI: Scholar
  5. Chen, Y., Zhang, L., Chen, J. Y., Li, C. G., and Hu, C. Q. (2011). “Cracking similarity simulation of induced joints and its application in model test of a RCC arch dam.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 327–335, DOI: Scholar
  6. Chu, H. N. (1989). Inside observation technology of concrete dam, China Electric Power Press, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  7. Chu, H. N. (2009). “Several issues on stress and strain monitoring of high concrete dams-discussion on some specification in safety monitoring norm.” Dam and Safety, No. 2, pp. 29–37.Google Scholar
  8. Ding, J. T., Chen, B., Cai, Y. B., and Sun, W. (2011). “Influence of temperature history on crack resistance of early age concrete.” Journal of Jiangsu University: Natural Science Edition, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 236–240, DOI: Scholar
  9. Geert, D. S. (2004). “Applicability of degree of hydration concept and maturity method for thermo-visco-elastic behaviour of early age concrete.” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 437–443, DOI: Scholar
  10. Huang, G. X., Hui, R. Y., and Wang, X. J. (2012a). The creep and shrinkage of concrete, China Electric Power Press, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  11. Huang, Y. Y., Zheng, H., Zhou Y. H., and Wu, X. W. (2012b). “Estimation of actual tensile strength of dam concrete based on small probability event method.” Journal of Wuhan University of Technology, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 86–90, DOI: Scholar
  12. Jiang, W., De Schutter, G., and Yuan, Y. (2014). “Degree of hydration based prediction of early age basic creep and creep recovery of blended concrete.” Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol. 48, pp. 83–90, DOI: Scholar
  13. Jin, X. Y., Tian, Y., and Jin, N. G. (2010). “Early age properties and cracking control of concrete.” Journal of Building Structures, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 204–212, DOI: Scholar
  14. Kim, J. K., Han, S. H., and Park, S. K. (2002). “Effect of temperature and aging on the mechanical properties of concrete: Part II. Prediction model.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 1095–1100, DOI: Scholar
  15. Kim, J. K., Moon, Y. H., and Eo, S. H. (1998). “Compressive strength development of concrete with different curing time and temperature.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 28, No. 12, pp. 1761–1773, DOI: Scholar
  16. Mehta, P. K. and Monteiro, P. J. M. (2006). Concrete microstructure, properties and materials, Third Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  17. Neville, A.M., Dilger, W. H., and Brooks, J. J. (1983). Creep of plain and structural concrete, Construction Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
  18. Serra, C., Batista, A. L., and Monteiro Azevedo, N. (2016). “Dam and wet-screened concrete creep in compression: In situ experimental results and creep strains prediction using model B3 and composite models.” Materials and Structures, Vol. 49, No. 11, pp. 4831–4851, DOI: Scholar
  19. Tang, T. F., Huang, Y. Y., Zhou, Y. H., Zhou, S. W., Li, J. H., Jing, J., and Cheng, Z. K. (2012). “Thermal expansion coefficient inversion based on concrete no-stress measuring value statistical model.” Water Power, Vol. 38, No. 10, pp. 33–35.Google Scholar
  20. Wang, P. M., Feng, S. X., and Liu, X. P. (2005). “Research approaches of cement hydration degree and their development.” Journal of Building Materials, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 646–652.Google Scholar
  21. Wang, J. C. and Yan, P. Y. (2014). “Influence of temperature history on compressive strength of early age concrete.” Journal of Northwest A&F University: Natural Science Edition, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 228–234, DOI: Scholar
  22. Wei, Y., Guo, W. Q., and Liang, S. M. (2016). “Microprestress-solidification theory-based tensile creep modeling of early-age concrete: Considering temperature and relative humidity effects.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 127, pp. 618–626, DOI: Scholar
  23. Wu, Z. R. (2003). Safety monitoring theory & its application of hydraulic structure, Higher Education Press, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  24. Zhang, X. W., Ye, L. P., and Wu, P. G. (2005a). “Finite element analysis on thermal stress in mass concrete at early ages with maturity method.” Building Structure, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 68–71, DOI: Scholar
  25. Zhang, Z. M., Zhou, H. J., and Yin, B. (2005b). “Equivalent time-based concrete creep.” Journal of Hohai University: Natural Science Edition, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 173–176.Google Scholar
  26. Zhao, Q. X., Liu, X. C., and Jiang, J. Y. (2015). “Effect of curing temperature on creep behavior of fly ash concrete.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 96, pp. 326–333, DOI: Scholar
  27. Zhu, B. F. (1999). Thermal stress and temperature control of mass concrete, China Electric Power Press, Beijing, China.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Hydraulic & Environmental EngineeringChina Three Gorges UniversityYichangChina
  2. 2.College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations