Chloride Diffusivity of High-Performance Concrete due to Early-Age Shrinkage Cracking
- 5 Downloads
Due to the addition of mineral admixtures, early-age shrinkage cracking is a common feature in high-performance concrete (HPC). Chloride diffusivity of HPC due to early-age shrinkage cracking was investigated through rapid chloride migration (RCM) method. Restrained/unrestrained slabs made of HPC containing fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) were left outdoors for early-age shrinkage cracking, and then cylindrical samples were drilled from slabs for RCM test to quantify the chloride diffusion coefficient, wherein a crack influence factor was introduced to account for the contribution of cracking in the chloride diffusivity progress. Test results from unrestrained HPC reveal that the addition of mineral admixtures could densify the pore structure of HPC thus improved the chloride diffusion coefficient, though FA had a delayed effect. The RCM tests from restrained HPC indicate that the crack indeed had an effect on the chloride ion transportation, but pore structure still dominated the chloride ingress. For a fixed cement replacement, the more the GGBS in the mix, the higher the contribution of cracking to chloride ion penetration.
Keywordschloride diffusion high-performance concrete shrinkage cracking rapid chloride migration
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, Grant No. 2015CB057703) and Creative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51421064).
- AASHTO (2005). Standard practice for estimating the crack tendency of concrete, AASHTO, Washington DC, USA, pp. 34–99.Google Scholar
- ASTM (2009). Standard test method for determining age at cracking and induced tensile stress characteristics of mortar and concrete under restrained shrinkage, ASTM C1581/C1581M-09a, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.Google Scholar
- Dong, W., Zhou, X. M., and Wu, Z. M. (2014). “A fracture mechanics-based method for prediction of cracking of circular and elliptical concrete rings under restrained shrinkage.” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 131, pp. 687–701, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/J.engfracmech.2014.10.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gagné, R., Francois, R., and Masse, P. (2001). “Chloride penetration testing of cracked mortar samples.” Proc. of 3rd International Conference on Concrete under Severe Conditions, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 198–205.Google Scholar
- Jiang, C., Yang, Y., Wang, Y., Zhou, Y., and Ma, C. C. (2014). “Autogenous shrinkage of high performance concrete containing mineral admixtures under different curing temperature.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 61, pp. 260–269, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.03.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kraai, P. P. (1985) “A proposed test to determine the cracking potential due to drying shrinkage of concrete.” Concrete Construction, Vol. 30, No. 9, pp. 775–778.Google Scholar
- Li, Z. J., Qi, M., Li, Z. L., and Ma, B. G. (1999). “Crack width of high-performance concrete due to restrained shrinkage.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 214–223, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(1999)11:3(214).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ma L. N., Zhao Y. H., and Gong J. X. (2018) “Restrained early-age shrinkage cracking properties of high-performance concrete containing fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 191, pp. 1–12, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.09.154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marsavina, L., Audenaert, K., De Schutter, G., Faur, N., and Marsavina, D. (2009). “Experimental and numerical determination of the chloride penetration in cracked concrete.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 264–274, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.12.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NT Build (1999). Concrete, mortar and cement-based repair materials: Chloride migration, NT Build 492, Espoo, Finland.Google Scholar
- Rodriguez, O. G. and Hooton, R. D. (2003). “Influence of cracks on chloride ingress into concrete.” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 100, No. 2, pp. 120–126.Google Scholar
- Tang, L. P. and Nilsson, L. O. (1993). “Rapid determination of chloride diffusivity of concrete by applying an electric field.” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 89, No. 1, pp. 49–53.Google Scholar
- Wang, J. J., Basheer, P. A. M., Nanukuttan S. V., Long, A. E., and Bai, Y. (2016). “Influence of service loading and the resulting micro-cracks on chloride resistance of concrete.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 108, pp. 56–66, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.01.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Weerdt, K. D., Orsáková, D., Müller, A. C., Larsen, C. K., Pedersen, B., and Geiker, M. R. (2016). “Towards the understanding of chloride profiles in marine exposed concrete, impact of leaching and moisture content.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 120, pp. 418–431, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.05.069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang, Z., Brown, H., Huddleston, J., and Seger, W. (2016). “Restrained shrinkage cracking and dry shrinkage of rapid-set prepackaged cementitious materials.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yu, L. W., François, R., and Gagné, R. (2016). “Influence of steel-concrete interface defects induced by top-casting on development of chloride-induced corrosion in RC beams under sustained loading.” Materials and Structures, Vol. 49, No. 12, pp. 5169–5181, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-016-0852-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yuan, Q., Shi, C., De Schutter, G., Audenaert, K., and Deng, D. (2009). “Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment — A review.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 1–13, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar