KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 1442–1450 | Cite as

Factors influencing Time and Cost Overruns on Freeform Construction Projects

  • Andrew Kavuma
  • Jongho Ock
  • Hyounseung JangEmail author
Construction Management


Freeform buildings differ from conventional buildings in a way that they have irregularly shaped facades. Oftentimes, freeform projects run behind schedule and over the budget. This study aimed at exploring factors that influence time and cost overruns on freeform buildings. The study employed questionnaire surveys to collect data from experts with freeform project experience, and the responses were analyzed using R statistical program. The study used exploratory factor analysis to identify the most critical latent factors to freeform project success. The study found factors related to application of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and fabrication of freeform components as very crucial to timely completion, whereas factors related to personnel involved as essential to completing within budget. Additionally, the study summarized time overrun variables into three latent factors; uniqueness, capabilities and practices of the parties involved, and level of preparation for the project. The cost overrun latent factors were: cost uncertainty, client decisions, extent of preparation, and delay. Understanding the causes of time and cost overruns on freeform buildings identified in this study can help clients make informed decisions regarding undertaking freeform projects as well as help consultants and contractors minimize the risk of encountering such overruns.


time overruns cost overruns freeform projects Building Information Modeling (BIM) latent factors 


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Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ArchitectureSeoul National University of Science and TechnologySeoulKorea

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