Advertisement

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 1442–1450 | Cite as

Factors influencing Time and Cost Overruns on Freeform Construction Projects

  • Andrew Kavuma
  • Jongho Ock
  • Hyounseung JangEmail author
Construction Management
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

Freeform buildings differ from conventional buildings in a way that they have irregularly shaped facades. Oftentimes, freeform projects run behind schedule and over the budget. This study aimed at exploring factors that influence time and cost overruns on freeform buildings. The study employed questionnaire surveys to collect data from experts with freeform project experience, and the responses were analyzed using R statistical program. The study used exploratory factor analysis to identify the most critical latent factors to freeform project success. The study found factors related to application of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and fabrication of freeform components as very crucial to timely completion, whereas factors related to personnel involved as essential to completing within budget. Additionally, the study summarized time overrun variables into three latent factors; uniqueness, capabilities and practices of the parties involved, and level of preparation for the project. The cost overrun latent factors were: cost uncertainty, client decisions, extent of preparation, and delay. Understanding the causes of time and cost overruns on freeform buildings identified in this study can help clients make informed decisions regarding undertaking freeform projects as well as help consultants and contractors minimize the risk of encountering such overruns.

Keywords

time overruns cost overruns freeform projects Building Information Modeling (BIM) latent factors 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abd El–Razek, M., Bassioni, H., and Mobarak, A. (2008). “Causes of delay in building construction: Projects in egypt.” Journal of Construction Engineering And Management–ASCE, vol. 134, no. 11, pp. 831–841. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733–9364(2008)134:11(831).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, S. M., Azhar, S., Kappagantula, P., and Gollapudi, D. (2003). “Delays in: A brief study of the Florida construction industry.” Proceeding of the 39 th Annual Conference of the Associated Schools of Construction. Clemson, South Carolina: Clemson University. Final report, Miami, F1 33174, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Alaghbari, M. W., Razali, A., Khadir, M., Salim, A, and Ernawati (2007). “The significant factors causing delay of building construction projects in Malaysia.” Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 192–206. DOI: 10.1108/09699980710731308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al–Gahtani, K. and Mohan, S. (2007). “Total float management for delay analysis.” Journal of Cost Engineering, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 32–37.Google Scholar
  5. Al–Momani, A. H. (2000). “Construction delay: A quantitative analysis.” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 51–59. DOI: 10.1016/S0263–7863(98)00060–X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bramble, B. B. and Callahan, M. T. (1987). Construction delay claims, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA.Google Scholar
  7. Buswell, R. A., Soar, R., Gibb, A., and Thorpe, A. (2005). “The potential of freeform construction processes.” The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Chan, D. and Kumaraswamy, M. M. (1996). “An evaluation of construction schedule performance in the building industry.” Journal of Building and Environmental, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 569–578. DOI: 10.1016/0360–1323(96)00031–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan, A. P. C., Scott, D., and Chan, A. P. L. (2004). “Factors affecting the success of a construction project.” Journal of Construction Engineering Management, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 153–155. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733–9364(2004)130:1(153).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choudhry, M. (2004). “The credit default swap basis: Analysing the relationship between cash and synthetic credit markets.” Journal of Derivatives Use, Trading and Regulation, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 8–26.Google Scholar
  11. Doloi, H. K. (2011). “Understanding stakeholders’ perspective of cost estimation in project management.” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 622–636. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijproman. 2010.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eden, C., Ackermann, F., and Williams, T. (2005). “The amoebic growth of project costs.” Project Management Journal, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eekhout, M., Barbara, V. G., Lockefeer, W., Veltkamp, M., and Vollers, K. (2015). Free form technology from Delft, Vol. 14, IOS Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands, DOI: 10.3233/978–1–61499–554–8–i.Google Scholar
  14. Eigensatz, M., Deuss, M., Schiftner, A., Kilian, M., Mitra, N. J., Pottmann, H., and Pauly, M. (2010). “Case studies in cost–optimized paneling of architectural freeform surfaces.” Advances in Architectural Geometry, pp. 49–72. DOI: 10.1007/978–3–7091–0309–8_4.Google Scholar
  15. Elinwa, A. U. and Joshua, M. (2001). “Time–overrun factors in Nigerian construction industry.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 419–425. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE) 0733–9364(2001)127:5(419).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Everitt, B. and Hothorn, T. (2011). “An introduction to applied multivariate analysis with R.” Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, DOI: 10.1007/978–1–4419–9650–3_5.Google Scholar
  17. FAL (2013). “Building Shape & Subordinate Vertex.” Freeform Architecture Laboratory, https://doi.org/www.freeform.kr/archi_theory [Accessed on December 20, 2016].Google Scholar
  18. Frimpong, Y., Oluwoye, J., and Crawford, L. (2003). “Causes of delay and cost overruns in construction of groundwater projects in a developing countries; Ghana as a case study.” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 321–326. DOI: 10.1016/S0263–7863(02)00055–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hambleton, D., Howes, C., Hendricks, J., and Kooymans, J. (2009). “Study of panelization techniques to inform freeform architecture.” Halcrow Yolles Partnership Inc., Glass Performance Days, https://doi.org/www.glassglobal.com/gpd/downloads/ArchitecturalChallenges-Hambleton.pdf [Accessed on November 14, 2016].Google Scholar
  20. Jackson, S. (2002). “Project cost overruns and risk management.” Paper presented at the Greenwood, D. (Ed.) Proceedings of Association of Researchers in Construction Management 18th Annual ARCOM Conference, Newcastle, Australia.Google Scholar
  21. Kaming, P., Olomolaiye, P., Holt, G., and Harris, F. C. (1997). “Factors influencing construction time and cost overruns on high–rise projects in Indonesia.” Journal of Construction Management and Economics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 83–94. DOI: 10.1080/014461997373132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim, K. H., Son, K. Y., Kim, E. D., and Kim, S. K. (2015). “Current trends and future directions of free–form building technology.” Architectural Science Review, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 230–243. DOI: 10.1080/00038628.2014.927751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. King, R. (2012). “‘White elephant’ London 2012 Olympics runs £2bn over budget as security costs double due to ‘poor planning’ since 7/7”, The Daily Mail, Main Section ed, dailymail.co.uk, https://doi.org/www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2112489/London-2012-Olympicsruns-2bn-budget-security-costs-double.html.Google Scholar
  24. Koushki, P. A., Al-Rashid, K., and Kartam, N. (2005). “Delays and cost increase in the construction of private residential projects in Kuwait.” Journal of Construction Management and Economics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 285–294. DOI: 10.1080/0144619042000326710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Le–Hoai, L., Lee, Y. D., and Lee, J. Y. (2008). “Delay and cost overruns in vietnam large construction projects: A comparison with other selected countries.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 367–377. DOI: 10.1007/s12205–008–0367–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee, G. (2008). “Construction issues of irregular–shaped buildings.” Journal of Architectural Institute of Korea, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 63–65.Google Scholar
  27. Lee, G. and Kim, S. W. (2012). “Case study of mass customization of double–curved metal facade panels using a new hybrid sheet metal processing technique.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 138, no. 11, pp. 1322–1330. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943–7862.0000551.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee, H. J. (2008). A study on the tectonic meaning of architectural skin by the introduction of digital technology, focus on project of Frank Gehry and Herzog & Meuron, MSc Thesis, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  29. Lyu, H. C. (2009). “Characteristics of digital tectonics of freeform structures designed through digital process.” Korea Design Knowledge & Industrial Forum, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 225–236.Google Scholar
  30. Majid, M. Z. and McCaffer, R. (1998). “Factors of non–excusable delays that influence contractors’ performance.” Journal of Management in Engineering Vol. 14, No. 3, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0742–597X (1998)14:3(42).Google Scholar
  31. Mansfield, N. R., Ugwu, O. O., and Doran, T. (1994). “Causes of delay and cost overruns in Nigeria construction projects.” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 254–260. DOI: 10.1016/0263–7863(94)90050–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mosoarca, M., Anastasiadis, A., and Apostolos, K. (2014). “Are free form architectures ecological buildings?” Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 366–373.Google Scholar
  33. Park, H. K. and Ock, J. H. (2015). “Developing the preliminary cost estimate for the free–form building facade in conjunction with the panel optimization process.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 5, p. 1214, DOI: 10.1007/s12205–015–0671–y.Google Scholar
  34. Park, J. D. (2005). “A study on digital technology for the construction of curved forms.” Journal of Architectural Institute of Korea, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 183–192.Google Scholar
  35. Park, J. W., Kim, S. C., Lee, S. S., and Song, H. Y. (2009). “Suggesting solutions when applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) to the Korean Construction Industry through Case Studies.” Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 93–102. DOI: 10.5345/JKIC.2009.9.4.093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Raun, C., Kristensen, M. K., and Kirkegaard, P. H. (2011). Dynamic Double Curvature Mould System, Computational Design Modelling. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, DOI: 10.1007/978–3–642–23435–4_33.Google Scholar
  37. Reichelt, K. and Lyneis, J. (1999). “The dynamics of project performance: Benchmarking the drivers of cost and schedule overrun.” European Management Journal, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 135–150. DOI: 10.1016/S0263–2373(98)00073–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sambasivan, M. and Soon, Y. (2007). “Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry.” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 517–526. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijproman. 2006.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sanders, D. and Eagles, W. D. (2001). Delay, disruption and acceleration claims, Borden Ladner Gervais LLP, May, 3.Google Scholar
  40. Stumpf, G. R. (2000). “Schedule delay analysis.” Cost Engineering Journal, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 32–43.Google Scholar
  41. Sweis, G. J. (2013). “Factors affecting time overruns in public construction projects: The case of jordan.” International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 8, no. 23, pp. 120–129. DOI: 10.5539/ijbm. v8n23p120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Syal, R. and Gibson, O. (2012). Olympic Games risk going over budget as cost hits £11bn, say MPs, The Guardian, guardian.co.uk, https://doi.org/www.theguardian.com/sport/2012/mar/09/olympic-games-budget-cost.Google Scholar
  43. Verhaegh, R. W. A. (2010).Free Forms in Concrete Fabric, MSc Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  44. Vidalis, M. S. and Najafi, T. F. (2002), “Cost and time overruns in highway construction.” 4th transportation specially conference of the Canadian Society for civil Engineering, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.Google Scholar
  45. West, M. and Araya, R. (2009). “Fabric formwork for concrete structures and architecture.” International Conference on Textile Composites and Inflatable Structures CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain.Google Scholar
  46. Zhu, K. and Lin, L. (2004). “A stage – by – stage factor control frame work for cost estimation of construction projects.” Owners Driving Innovation International Conference, https://doi.org/flybjerg.Plan.aau.dk/JAPAASPUBLISHED.pelf [Accessed on January 27, 2016].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ArchitectureSeoul National University of Science and TechnologySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations