Advertisement

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 4132–4140 | Cite as

Water Inflow Prediction and Grouting Design for Tunnel considering Nonlinear Hydraulic Conductivity

  • Pan Cheng
  • Lianheng ZhaoEmail author
  • Qiao Li
  • Liang Li
  • Shuoyun Zhang
Tunnel Engineering
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

Grouting prevents groundwater leakage into tunnels, based on the exponent model that expresses the nonlinear variation of the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock, the formulas for predicting the magnitude of water inflow and outer water pressure of the lining after grouting are deduced. The parameter analysis shows how the water inflow decreases as the hydraulic conductivity of the grouting circle diminishes and the thickness of the grouting circle increases. When the parameter α (attenuation coefficient), which expresses the decreasing amplitude of the permeability coefficient of the surrounding rock with depth, is greater than 0, the water inflow increases until it reaches a maximum at a certain depth, and then the inflow decreases to 0 if deep enough. After considering the variation in the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock, the thickness and hydraulic conductivity of the grouting circle may be designed to be too large to reduce the magnitude of the water inflow. Meanwhile, to reach the limited drainage criterion of the tunnel groundwater, the grouting circle thickness decreases gradually as α increases after the nonlinear variation of the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock, which can reduce the cost for plugging the groundwater. Thus, it is critical to consider hydraulic conductivity variation during water inflow predicting and grouting when designing tunnels.

Keywords

water inflow prediction grouting design heterogeneous and isotropic surrounding rock nonlinear hydraulic conductivity tunnel 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research project was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos: 51809271, 51478477) and the Scientific Research Program of National University of Defense Technology (ZK2017-03-40).

References

  1. Butscher, C. (2012). “Steady-state groundwater inflow into a circular tunnel.” Tunn. Undergr. Space. Technol., Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 58–67, DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2012.06.007.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheng, P. (2014). Groundwater seepage and control method for tunnel and limiting drainage criterion based on ecological balance, PhD Thesis, Central South University, Hunan, China.Google Scholar
  3. Cheng, P., Zhao, L. H., Zhang, S. W., Li. L., Shen, Z. Q., Ning, P. F., and Zhang, Z. H. (2017). “Water inflow forecasting for tunnel considering nonlinear variation of permeability coefficient.” J. Cent. South. Univ., Vol. 24, No. 7, pp. 1612–1618, DOI: 10.1007/s11771-017-3566-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Domenico, P. and Schwartz, F. (1998). Physical and chemical hydrogeology, Wiley, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Farhadian, H., Katibeh, H., and Huggenberger, P. (2016a). “Empirical model for estimating groundwater flow into tunnel in discontinuous rock masses.” Environ. Earth. Sci., Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 1–16, DOI: 10.1007/s12665-016-5332-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Farhadian, H., Katibeh, H., Huggenberger, P., and Butscher, C. (2016b). “Optimum model extent for numerical simulation of tunnel inflow in fractured rock.” Tunn. Undergr. Space. Technol., Vol. 60, No. 7, pp. 21–29, DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2016.07.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fernandez, G. and Moon, J. (2010). “Excavation-induced hydraulic conductivity reduction around a tunnel-Part 1: Guideline for estimate of ground water inflow rate.” Tunn. Undergr. Space. Technol., Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 560–566, DOI: 10.1016/j.tust.2010.03.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Freeze, R. A. and Cherry, J. A. (1977). Groundwater, Prentice Hall, London, UK.Google Scholar
  9. Gao, X. Q. (2005). Study on the distribution rule of water pressure upon lining in subject to high hydraulic pressure mountain tunnel, PhD Thesis, Southwest Jiaotong University, Sichuan, China.Google Scholar
  10. Giacomini, A., Buzzi, O., Ferrero, A. M., Migliazza, M., and Giani, G. P. (2008). “Numerical study of flow anisotropy within a single natural rock joint.” Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci., Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 47–58, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2007.04.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goodman, R. E., Moye, D. G., Schalkwyk, A. V., and Javandel, I. (1965). “Ground water inflows during tunnel driving.” Eng. Geol., Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 39–56.Google Scholar
  12. Jiang, X. W., Wan, L., Wang, X. S., Liang, S. H., and Hu, B. X. (2009). “Estimation of fracture normal stiffness using a transmissivity-depth correlation.” Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci., Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 51–58, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang, X. W., Wan, L., Wang, X. S., Wu, X., and Cheng, H. H. (2009). “Estimation of depth-dependent hydraulic conductivity and deformation modulus using RQD.” Rock and Soil Mech., Vol. 30, No. 10, pp. 3163–3167, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-7598.2009.10.047.Google Scholar
  14. Jiang, X. W., Wang, X. S., and Wan, L. (2010). “Semi-empirical equations for the systematic decrease in permeability with depth in porous and fractured media.” Hydrol. J., Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 839–850, DOI: 10.1007/s10040-010-0575-3.Google Scholar
  15. Li, L. X. and Zou, J. F. (2013). “Design method of grouting parameters for broken rock tunnel.” J. Cent. South. Univ. (Sci. Technol), Vol. 44, No. 8, pp. 3432–3240.Google Scholar
  16. Louis, C. (1974). Rock hydraulics in rock mechanics, Springer Verlag, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  17. Ministry of Construction of the People's Republic of China (2009). Code for investigation of geotechnical engineering, GB 50021-2001(2009), China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  18. Polubarinova-Kochina, P. Y. (1962). Theory of ground water movement, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. Sun, R. L., Liang, X., and Jin, M. G. (2006). “Review on determination of hydraulic conductivity of fractured rocks.” Hydrogeol. Eng. Geol., Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 120–123, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-3665.2006.06.030.Google Scholar
  20. Tani, M. E. (1999). “Water inflow into tunnels.” Proc. of the World Tunnel Congress ITA-AITES 1999, Balkema, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  21. Tani, M. E. (2003). “Circular tunnel in a semi-infinite aquifer.” Tunn. Undergr. Space. Technol., Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 49–55, DOI: 10.1016/S0886-7798(02)00102-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wan, L., Jiang, X. W., and Wang, X. S. (2010). “A common regularity of aquifers, the decay in hydraulic conductivity with depth.” Geol. J. China. Univ., Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 7–12, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-7493.2010.01.002.Google Scholar
  23. Wang, X. S., Jiang, X. W., Wan, L., Song, G., and Xia, Q. (2009). “Evaluation of depth-dependent porosity and bulk modulus of a shear using permeability–depth trends.” Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci., Vol. 46, No. 7, pp. 1175–1181, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2009.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang, X. Y., Wang, M. S., and Zhang, M. (2004). “A simple method to calculate tunnel discharge and external water pressure on lining.” J. North. Jiaotong. Univ., Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 8–10, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-0291.2004.01.003.Google Scholar
  25. Wang, X. Y., Wang, M. S., and Zhang, M. (2005). “Research on regulating water pressure acting on mountain tunnels by blocking ground water and limiting discharge.” Chin. J. Geotech. Eng., Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 125–127, DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-4548.2005.01.022.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang, L. and Franklin, J. A. (1993). “Prediction of water flow into rock tunnels: An analytical solution assuming an hydraulic conductivity gradient.” Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 37–46, DOI: 10.1016/0148-9062(93)90174-C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang, Q. S., Han, W. W., Li, S. C., Yuan, Y. R., Liu, R. T., Li, J. Q., and Sun, H. F. (2012). “Comprehensive grouting treatment for water gushing analysis in limestone breccias fracture zone.” Chin. J. Rock. Mech. Eng., Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 2412–2419, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-6915.2012.12.004.Google Scholar
  28. Zhang, Q. S., Zhang, L. Z., Liu, R. T., Han, W. W., Zhu, M. T., and Li, X. H. (2015). “Laboratory experimental study of cement-silicate slurry diffusion law of crack grouting with dynamic water.” Rock Soil Mech., Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 2159–65, DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2015.08.005.Google Scholar
  29. Zhang, C. P., Zhang, D. L., Wang, M. S., and Xiang, Y. Y. (2007). “Study on appropriate parameters of grouting circle for tunnels with limiting discharge lining in high water pressure and water-enriched region.” Chin. J. Rock. Mech. Eng., Vol. 26, No. 11, pp. 2270–2276, DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-6915.2007.11.013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Aerospace Science and EngineeringNational University of Defense TechnologyChangshaChina
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  3. 3.Dept. of Civil EngineeringNational University of Defense TechnologyChangshaChina
  4. 4.School of Civil EngineeringCentral South UniversityHunanChina

Personalised recommendations