KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 4132–4140 | Cite as

Water Inflow Prediction and Grouting Design for Tunnel considering Nonlinear Hydraulic Conductivity

  • Pan Cheng
  • Lianheng ZhaoEmail author
  • Qiao Li
  • Liang Li
  • Shuoyun Zhang
Tunnel Engineering


Grouting prevents groundwater leakage into tunnels, based on the exponent model that expresses the nonlinear variation of the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock, the formulas for predicting the magnitude of water inflow and outer water pressure of the lining after grouting are deduced. The parameter analysis shows how the water inflow decreases as the hydraulic conductivity of the grouting circle diminishes and the thickness of the grouting circle increases. When the parameter α (attenuation coefficient), which expresses the decreasing amplitude of the permeability coefficient of the surrounding rock with depth, is greater than 0, the water inflow increases until it reaches a maximum at a certain depth, and then the inflow decreases to 0 if deep enough. After considering the variation in the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock, the thickness and hydraulic conductivity of the grouting circle may be designed to be too large to reduce the magnitude of the water inflow. Meanwhile, to reach the limited drainage criterion of the tunnel groundwater, the grouting circle thickness decreases gradually as α increases after the nonlinear variation of the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock, which can reduce the cost for plugging the groundwater. Thus, it is critical to consider hydraulic conductivity variation during water inflow predicting and grouting when designing tunnels.


water inflow prediction grouting design heterogeneous and isotropic surrounding rock nonlinear hydraulic conductivity tunnel 


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This research project was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos: 51809271, 51478477) and the Scientific Research Program of National University of Defense Technology (ZK2017-03-40).


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Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Aerospace Science and EngineeringNational University of Defense TechnologyChangshaChina
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  3. 3.Dept. of Civil EngineeringNational University of Defense TechnologyChangshaChina
  4. 4.School of Civil EngineeringCentral South UniversityHunanChina

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