KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 1427–1435 | Cite as

Latent Provisions for Building Information Modeling (BIM) Contracts: A Social Network Analysis Approach

  • Su-Ling Fan
  • Heap-Yih Chong
  • Pin-Chao LiaoEmail author
  • Cen-Ying Lee
Construction Management


The effective adoption and use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) require appropriate contract design to fairly allocate the contracting parties’ rights and responsibilities. Several standards for BIM protocols and contracts have been developed for the industry. However, the awareness and the use of these are rather limited, leading to unclear provisions in BIM contracts. Therefore, the research aims to identify the influential legal aspects that serve as the latent contract provisions in BIM contracts. A questionnaire survey was conducted to survey experts and active BIM users in construction projects. The data were analyzed using Social Network Analysis (SNA) by assuming interdependent relationships among various the legal aspects in BIM contacts. The key legal aspects associated with BIM contracts pertain to the roles and responsibilities of the project participants. The results also reveal that data security is the center of all latent legal aspects in the contracts. The study provides significant new insights into clarifying the required contract provisions in BIM contracts.


Building Information Modeling (BIM) legal aspects contract provisions contract administration social network analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. AEC (2012). AEC (UK) BIM Protocol, AEC (UK) CAD & BIM Standards Site, UK, [Accessed on Jan. 3, 2018].Google Scholar
  2. AIA (2013). Building information modeling and digital data exhibit, AIA Document E203TM–2013. The American Institute of Architects, USA, [Accessed on Jan. 3, 2018].Google Scholar
  3. Al–Shammari, M. A. (2014). “An appraisal of the protocol that was published by the Construction Industry Council (CIC) to facilitate the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) on projects.” Procs 30 th Annual ARCOM Conference, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, pp. 623–632.Google Scholar
  4. Arensman, D. B. and Ozbek, M. E. (2012). “Building information modeling and potential legal issues.” International Journal of Construction Education and Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 146–156. DOI: 10.1080/15578771.2011.617808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barthet, A. (2010). “A contractor’s defense: The Spearin doctrine.” The Lien Zone,[Accessed on Jan. 3, 2018].Google Scholar
  6. BuildingSMART–Australasia (2012). “Strategy: A strategy for the focused adoption of building information modelling and related digital technologies and processes for the Australian built environment sector.” National Building Information Modelling Initiative Report, Vol. 1.Google Scholar
  7. Buzan, T. and Buzan, B. (1996). The mind map book: How to use radiant thinking to maximize your brain’s untapped potential, Plume, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Chew, A. and Riley, M. (2013). “What is going on with BIM? The way to 6D.” The International Construction Law Review, pp. 253–265.Google Scholar
  9. Chien, K. F., Wu, Z. H. and Huang, S. C. (2014). “Identifying and assessing critical risk factors for BIM projects: Empirical study.” Automation in Construction, vol. 45, pp. 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chong, H. Y., Fan, S. L., Sutrisna, M., Hsieh, S. H., and Tsai, C. M. (2017). “Preliminary contractual framework for bim–enabled projects.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 143, no. 7, pp. 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chong, H. Y., Lopez, R., Wang, J., Wang, X., and Zhao, Z. A. (2016). “Comparative analysis on the adoption and use of BIM in road infrastructure projects.” Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 6, 05016021, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943–5479. 0000460.Google Scholar
  12. Chowdhury, A. N., Chen, P. H., and Tiong, R.L. (2011). “Analysing the structure of public–private partnership projects using network theory.” Construction Management and Economics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CIC (2013). Building Information Model (BIM) protocol, 1st Edition, Construction Industry Council, UK, [Accessed on Jan. 3, 2018].Google Scholar
  14. ConsensusDocs (2013). ConsensusDocs 301: Building Information Modelling (BIM) addendum, ConsensusDocs, US.Google Scholar
  15. CPC (2013). Contract for complex projects, The Chartered Institute of Building, UK, [Accessed on Jan. 3, 2018].Google Scholar
  16. Doloi, H. (2012). “Assessing stakeholders’ influence on social performance of infrastructure projects.” Facilities, vol. 30, Nos. 11–12, pp. 531–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eadie, R., McLernon, T., and Patton, A. (2015). “An investigation into the legal issues relating to Building Information Modelling (BIM).” Proceedings of RICS COBRA AUBEA 2015, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  18. Enegbuma, W. I. and Ali, K. N. (2011). “A preliminary study on Building Information Modeling (BIM) Implementation in Malaysia.” 3rd International Postgraduate Conference on Infrastructure and Environment (IPCIE2011), Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  19. Estrada, E. and Rodriguez–Velazquez, J. A. (2005). “Subgraph centrality in complex networks.” Phys. Review, Vol. 71, No. 5, 056103.Google Scholar
  20. Fan, S. L. (2014). “Intellectual property rights in building information modelling application in Taiwan.” Journal of Construction Engineering Management, Vol. 43, No. 3. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943–7862.0000808.Google Scholar
  21. Greenwood, D., Lewis, S., and Lockley, S. (2010). “Contractual issues in the total use of building information modelling.” Proceeding: W113–Special Track 18th CIB World Building Congress, Salford, UK, pp. 363–371.Google Scholar
  22. Guo, L., Vu, H. T. and McCombs, M. (2012). “An expanded perspective on agenda–setting effects. Exploring the third level of agenda setting.” Revista de Comunicación, Vol.11, pp. 51–68.Google Scholar
  23. Hardin, B. and McCool, D. (2015). BIM and construction management: Proven tools, methods, and workflows, John Wiley & Sons, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Hsieh, T. Y., Yeh, F., and Hsu, K. M. (2012). “Legal risks incurred under the application of BIM in Taiwan.” 14th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, Mscow, Russia.Google Scholar
  25. Hsu, K. M., Hsieh, T. Y., and Chen, J. H. (2015). “Legal risks incurred under the application of BIM in Taiwan.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers–Forensic Engineering, vol. 168, no. 3, pp. 127–133.Google Scholar
  26. JCT (2011). Public sector supplement: Fair payment, transparency and building information modelling, The Joint Contracts Tribunal Limited, [Accessed on Jan. 3, 2018].Google Scholar
  27. Joyce, R. and Houghton, D. (2014). “Briefing: Building information modelling and the law.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Management, Procurement and Law, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 114–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuiper, I. and Holzer, D. (2013). “Rethinking the contractual context for Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Australian built environment industry.” Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp.1–17.Google Scholar
  29. Lee, C. Y., Chong, H. Y., Liao, P. C., and Wang, X. (2018). “Critical review of social network analysis applications in complex project management.” Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 04017061.Google Scholar
  30. Lorenzo, T. M., Benedetta, B., Manuele, C., and Davide, T. (2014). “BIM and QR–code. A synergic application in construction site management.” Procedia Engineering, vol. 85, pp. 520–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lowe, R. H. and Muncey, J. M. (2009). “The ConsensusDOCS 301 BIM addendum.” Construction Lawyer, Vol.29, no. 1, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  32. Lowry, D. T., Nio, T. C. J., and Leitner, D. W. (2003). “Setting the public fear agenda: A longitudinal analysis of network TV crime reporting, public perceptions of crime, and FBI crime statistics.” Journal of Communication, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mahamadu, A. M., Mahdjoubi, L., and Booth, C. (2013). “Challenges to BIM–cloud integration: Implication of security issues on secure collaboration.” IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science, pp. 209–214.Google Scholar
  34. McAdam, B. (2010). “Building information modelling: the UK legal context.” International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, Vol.2, no. 3, pp. 246–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McCombs, M., and Reynolds, A (2002). “News influence on our pictures of the world.” Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research (2nd Ed.), J. Bryant and D. Zillmann, Eds., LEA, Mahwah, NJ, USA, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  36. Meijer, M. M. and Kleinnijenhuis, J. (2006). “Issue news and corporate reputation: Applying the theories of agenda setting and issue ownership in the field of business communication.” Journal of Communication, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 543–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Olatunji, O. A. (2011). “A preliminary review on the legal implications of BIM and model ownership.” Journal of Information Technology in Construction, vol. 16, pp. 687–696.Google Scholar
  38. Pishdad–Bozorgi, P., Austin, R. B., and de la Garza, J. M. (2016). “Network analysis of Flash–Track practices.” Journal of Management in Engineering, p. 04016024.Google Scholar
  39. Redmond, A., Hore, A. V., and West, R. (2010). “Developing a cloud integrated life cycle costing analysis model through BIM.” CIB W78 2011, Computer Knowledge Building, Sophia Antipolis, France.Google Scholar
  40. Simonian, L. and Korman, T. (2010). “Legal considerations in the united states associated with building information modeling.” The Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, RICS COBRA2010, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  41. Smith, P. (2014). “BIM Implementation–Global Strategies.” Creative Construction Conference, CC2014. Procedia Engineering, vol. 85, pp. 482–492.Google Scholar
  42. Solis, F., Sinfield, J. V., and Abraham, D. M. (2013). “Hybrid approach to the study of inter–organization high performance teams.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 379–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steel, J., Drogemuller, R., and Toth, B. (2012). “Model interoperability in building information modelling.” Software & Systems Modeling, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ussing, L. F., Svidt, K., and Wandahl, S. (2016). “Legal aspects connected to the use of BIM in the danish building sector.” Construction Research Congress 2016, ASCE, pp. 528–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vu, H. N. N. and Gehrau, V. (2010). “Agenda diffusion: An integrated model of agenda setting and interpersonal communication.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 100–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wambeke, B.W., Liu, M., and Hsiang, S. M. (2014). “Task variation and the social network of construction trades.” Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 4, p. 05014008.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Su-Ling Fan
    • 1
  • Heap-Yih Chong
    • 2
  • Pin-Chao Liao
    • 3
    Email author
  • Cen-Ying Lee
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Dept. of Civil EngineeringTamkang UniversityNew Tapei CityTaiwan
  2. 2.School of Built EnvironmentCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  3. 3.Dept. of Construction ManagementTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of Built EnvironmentUniversity of Reading MalaysiaIskandar PuteriMalaysia

Personalised recommendations