Advertisement

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 356–366 | Cite as

Durability Study of Silica Fume-mortar exposed to the Combined Sulfate and Chloride-rich Solution

  • Byung Wan Jo
  • Sumit ChakrabortyEmail author
  • Seung-Tae Lee
  • Yun Sung Lee
Structural Engineering
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

The present article investigates the mechanism behind the sulfate attack of the Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and the Silica Fume (SF) based mortar exposed to the combined sulfate and chloride-rich solution. In this study, the control mortar sample was fabricated using OPC. Additionally, the silica fume based mortar composites were fabricated using SF replacing the 5, 10, and 15% of OPC. The 28 days cured control and silica fume based mortar samples were exposed to a sodium sulfate (5%) solution and a mixture of sodium sulfate (5%) and sodium chloride (3.5%) solution for 510 days to examine the deterioration of mortar samples by the sulfate attack. The results reveal that a less extent of deterioration takes place in the silica fume based mortar as compared to that of the OPC mortar exposed to both solutions. The retarded deterioration of silica fume based mortar is primarily governed by the formation of a less extent of expansive ettringite and gypsum due to the consumption of portlandite in producing secondary Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH). Based on the analytical analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the overall performances of the silica fume based cement mortar composites exposed to different aggressive environments.

Keywords

cement composites silica fume durability corrosive environment sulfate attack 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

12205_2018_5809_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (520 kb)
Durability Study of Silica Fume-mortar exposed to the Combined Sulfate and Chloride-rich Solution

References

  1. Aït-Mokhtar, A. and Millet, O. (2015). Structure design and degradation mechanisms in coastal environments, Aït-Mokhtar, A., Millet, O. Eds., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, N. J., USA.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Amoudi, O. S. B., Maslehuddin, M., and Abdul-Al, Y. A. B. (1995). “Role of chlorideions on expansion and strength reduction in plain and blended cements in sulfate environments.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 25–33, DOI: 10.1016/0950-0618(95)92857-D.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Dulaijan, S. U. (2007). “Sulfate resistance of plain and blended cements exposed to magnesium sulfate solutions.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 1792–1802, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.05.017.Google Scholar
  4. ASTM C 109/C 109M (2004). Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA: ASTM International.Google Scholar
  5. ASTM C1012 (2004). Standard test method for length change of hydraulic-cement mortars exposed to a sulfate solution, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA: ASTM International.Google Scholar
  6. ASTM C150 (2015). Standard specification for portland cement, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA: ASTM International.Google Scholar
  7. Bonakdar, A., Mobasher, B., and Chawla, N. (2012). “Diffsivity and micro-hardness of blended cement materials exposed to external sulfate attack.” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 76–85, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.08.016.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, W. and Taylor, H. (1999). “The role of ettringite in external sulfate attack.” Materials Science of Concrete: Sulfate Attack Mechanisms, Marchand, J, and Skalny, J., Eds., The American Ceramic Society, pp. 73–98, Westerville (OH).Google Scholar
  9. Chakraborty, S., Kundu, S. P., Roy, A., Adhikari, B., and Majumder, S. B. (2013). “Effect of jute as fiber reinforcement controlling the hydration characteristics of cement matrix.” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 52, pp. 1252–1260, DOI: 10.1021/ie300607r.Google Scholar
  10. Collepardi, M. (2001). “Ettringite formation and sulfate attack on concrete.” ACI materials Journal, Vol. 200, pp. 21–38. Available at: http://www.encosrl.it/OLDSITE/pubblicazioni-scientifiche/pdf/degrado/63.pdf.Google Scholar
  11. Duana, P., Shuia, Z., Chena, W., and Shen, C. (2013). “Enhancing microstructure and durability of concrete from ground granulated blast furnace slag and metakaolin as cement replacement materials.” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 52–59, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.03.010.Google Scholar
  12. Frias, M., Goñi, S., García, R., and Vigil de La Villa, R. (2013). “Seawater effect on durability of ternary cements. Synergy of chloride and sulphate ions.” Composites: Part B, Vol. 46, pp. 173–178, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.09.089.Google Scholar
  13. Hartshorn, S. A., Sharp, J. H., and Swamy, R. N. (2002). “The thaumasite form of sulfate attack in portland-limestone cement mortars stored in magnesium sulfate solution.” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 24, pp. 351–359, DOI: 10.1016/S0958-9465(01)00087-7.Google Scholar
  14. Idiart, A. E., Lopez, C. M., and Carol, I. (2011). “Chemo-mechanical analysis of concrete cracking and degradation due to external sulfate attack: A meso-scale model.” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 411–423, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2010.12.001.Google Scholar
  15. Irassar, E. F., Bonavetti, V. L., and González, M. (2003). “Microstructural study of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone Portland cements at ambient temperature.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, pp. 31–41, DOI: 10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00914-6.Google Scholar
  16. Jo, B. W. and Chakraborty, S. (2015). “A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste.” Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, No. 7837, pp. 1–9, DOI: 10.1038/srep07837.Google Scholar
  17. Jo, B. W., Chakraborty, S., Kim, K. H., and Lee, Y. S. (2014). “Effectiveness of the top-down nanotechnology in the production of ultrafine cement (220 nm).” Journal of Nanomaterials, Vol. 2014, No. 131627, pp. 1–9, DOI: 10.1155/2014/131627.Google Scholar
  18. Jo, B. W., Sikandar, M. A., Chakraborty, S., and Baloch, Z. (2017). “Investigation of the acid and sulfate resistance performances of hydrogen-rich water based mortars.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 137, pp. 1–11, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.01.074.Google Scholar
  19. Lea, F. M. (1970). The chemistry of cement and concrete, 3rd Edition, Edward Arnold Publishers, London, pp. 442.Google Scholar
  20. Lee, S. T. (2012). “Performance of mortars exposed to different sulfate concentrations.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 601–609, DOI: 10.1007/s12205-012-1054-2.Google Scholar
  21. Lee, S. T., Moon, H. Y., and Swamy, R. N. (2005). “Sulfate attack and role of silica fume in resisting strength loss.” Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol. 27, pp. 65–76, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2003.11.003.Google Scholar
  22. Leklou, N., Nguyen, V. H., and Mounanga, P. (2017). “The effect of the partial cement substitution with fly ash on delayed ettringite formation in heat-cured mortars.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 1359–1366, DOI: 10.1007/s12205-016-0778-9.Google Scholar
  23. Lorente, S., Yssorche-Cubaynes, M. P., and Auger, J. (2011). “Sulfate transfer through concrete: Migration and diffsion results.” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 33, No. 7, pp. 735–741, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.05.001.Google Scholar
  24. Maes, M. and Belie, N. D. (2014). “Resistance of concrete and mortar against combined attack of chloride and sodium sulphate.” Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol. 53, pp. 59–72, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2014.06.013.Google Scholar
  25. Naik, N. N., Jupe, A. C., Stock, S. R., Wilkinson, A. P., Lee, P. L., and Kurtis, K. E. (2006). “Sulfate attack monitored by microCT and EDXRD: Inflence of cement type, water-to-cement ratio, and aggregate.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 144–159, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2005.06.004.Google Scholar
  26. Neville, A. (2004). “The confused world of sulfate attack on concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 34, pp. 1275–1296, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.04.004.Google Scholar
  27. Neville, A. M. and Brooks, J. J. (2010). Concrete technology [2nd edition], Pearson Education limited, England.Google Scholar
  28. Ogawa, K. and Roy, D. M. (1982). “C4A3S hydration, ettringite formation, and its expansion mechanism: III. Effect of CaO, NaOH and NaCl; conclusions.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 247–256, DOI: 10.1016/0008-8846(82)90011-4.Google Scholar
  29. Pommersheim, J. M. and Cliftn, J. R. (1994). “Expansion of cementitious materials exposed to sulfate solutions, scientifi basis for nuclear waste management.” Materials Research Society, Vol. 333, pp. 363–368, DOI: 10.1557/PROC-333-363.Google Scholar
  30. Rapin, J. P., Renaudin, G., Elkaim, E., and Francois, M. (2002). “Structural transition of Friedel’s salt 3CaO Al2O3 CaCl2 10H2O studied by synchrotron powder diffraction.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 32, pp. 513–519, DOI: 10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00716-5.Google Scholar
  31. Ryou, J., Lee, S., Park, D., Kim, S., and Jung, H. (2015). “Durability of cement mortars incorporating limestone filler exposed to sodium sulfate solution.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 1347–1358, DOI: 10.1007/s12205-012-0457-4.Google Scholar
  32. Santhanam, M., Cohen, M. D., and Olek, J. (2001). “Sulfate attack research–whither now?.” Cement Concrete Research, Vol. 31, pp. 845–851, DOI: 10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00510-5.Google Scholar
  33. Santhanam, M., Cohen, M. D., and Olek, J. (2002). “Modeling the effects of solution temperature and concentration during sulfate attack on cement mortars.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 585–592, DOI: 10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00727-X.Google Scholar
  34. Siddique, R. and Khan, M. I. (2011). “Silica fume.” Supplementary cementing materials, R. Siddique and M. I. Khan, Eds., CH. 2, Springer, Heidelberg, p. 110.Google Scholar
  35. Sun, C., Chen, J., Zhu, J., Zhang, M., and Ye, J. (2013). “A new diffusion model of sulfate ions in concrete.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 39, pp. 39–45, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.05.022.Google Scholar
  36. Tixier, R. and Mobasher, B. (2003a). “Modeling of damage in cement based materials subjected to external sulfate attack. I. Formulation.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 305–313, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2003)15:4(305).Google Scholar
  37. Tixier, R. and Mobasher, B. (2003b). “Modeling of damage in cementbased materials subjected to external sulfate attack II: Comparison with experiments sulfate attack mechanisms.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 314–322, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2003)15:4(314).Google Scholar
  38. Yang, S., Zhongzi, Z., and Mingsu, T. (1996). “The process of sulfate attack on cement mortars.” Advanced Cement Based Materials, Vol. 4, pp. 1–5, DOI: 10.1016/S1065-7355(96)90057-7.Google Scholar
  39. Yildirim, K. and Sümer, M. (2013). “Effects of sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate concentration on the durability of cement mortar with and without fly ash.” Composites: Part B, Vol. 52, pp. 56–61, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.03.040.Google Scholar
  40. Zhang, M. H., Chen, J. K., Lv, Y. F., Wang, D. J., and Ye, J. (2013). “Study on the expansion of concrete under attack of sulfate and sulfate chloride ions.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 39, pp. 26–32, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.05.003.Google Scholar
  41. Zhou, Y., Tian, H., Sui, L., Xing, F., and Han, N. (2015). “Strength Deterioration of Concrete in Sulfate Environment: An Experimental Study and Theoretical Modeling.” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2015, No. 951209, pp. 1–13, DOI: 10.1155/2015/951209.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byung Wan Jo
    • 1
  • Sumit Chakraborty
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Seung-Tae Lee
    • 1
  • Yun Sung Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Civil and Environmental EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Dept. of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology ShibpurHowrahIndia

Personalised recommendations