Advertisement

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 1201–1212 | Cite as

The investigation of rock indentation simulation based on discrete element method

  • Xiaohua Zhu
  • Weiji Liu
  • Xianqun He
Geotechnical Engineering

Abstract

Rock indentation is widely encountered in rock engineering, such as oil & gas drilling process. The rock indentation represents the fundamental process for mechanical rock breaking. Therefore, it is necessary to research the failure mechanism during the rock indentation process. For this purpose, the Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) and Brazilian Tensile Strength (BTS) tests are performed to calibrate the relations between micro-properties and macro-properties of the rock specimens. The rock indentation process and crack propagation with the effects of lateral pressure, hydraulic pressure, ledge, wedge angle and joint are researched by PFC2D in this paper. The results show that: with the indenter penetrating into rock, the sub-vertical crack is formed from the damaged zone and it will extend to bottom edge of the rock at last; the initiation and propagation of the sub-vertical crack is mostly driven by the tensile contact force. The development of sub-vertical crack and damaged zone are restrained with increasing lateral pressure, the lateral pressure increases led to an increase in the critical penetration depth and the size of the damaged zone decreases and its shape flattens with the lateral pressure increasing. On the contrary, the development of sub-vertical crack and damaged zone are promoted with increasing hydraulic pressure. With the wedge angle increases the size of crushed zone underneath the indenter increases, it promotes the formation of sub-vertical crack; larger wedge angle causes a larger indentation force. The existence of a ledge leads to crack initiation and propagation towards the free surface and the presence of the joint also promotes crack initiation and propagation towards the joint; when the crack propagates to the joint, the crack will no longer propagate towards the intact rock mass but along the joint.

Keywords

rock indentation rock failure mechanism crack propagation joint discrete element method 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Areias, P. and Rabczuk, T. (2013). “Finite strain fracture of plates and shells with configurational forces and edge rotations.” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 94, No. 12, pp. 1099–1122, DOI: 10.1002/nme.4477.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Areias, P., Rabczuk, T., and Camanho, P. P. (2014). “Finite strain fracture of 2D problems with injected anisotropic softening elements.” Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 72, pp. 50–63, DOI: 10.1016/j.tafmec.2014.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amiri, F., Anitescu, C., Arroyo, M., et al. (2014). “XLME interpolants, a seamless bridge between XFEM and enriched meshless methods.” Computational Mechanics, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 45–57, DOI: 10.1007/s00466-013-0891-2.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Alehossein, H., Detournay, E., Huang, H. (2000). “An analytical model for the indentation of rocks by blunt tools.” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 267–284, DOI: 10.1007/s006030070003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ajibose, O. K., Wiercigroch, M., and Akisanya, A. R. (2015). “Experimental studies of the resultant contact forces in drillbit–rock interaction.” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 91, pp. 3–11, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2014.10.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Budarapu, P. R., Gracie, R., Yang, S, W., Zhuang, X., and Rabczuk, T. (2014). “Efficient coarse graining in multiscale modeling of fracture.” Theoretical & Applied Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 126–143, DOI: 10.1016/j.tafmec.2013.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Budarapu, P. R., Javvaji, B., Sutrakar, V. K., Mahapatra, D. R., Zi, G., and Rabczuk, T. (2015). “Crack propagation in graphene.” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 118, No. 6, pp. 2491–3, DOI: 10.1063/1.4928316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, L. H., Labuz, J. F. (2006). “Indentation of rock by wedge-shaped tools.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 7, pp. 1023–1033, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms. 2006.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, L. H. and Labuz, J. F. (2000). Indentation of rock with wedgeshaped tools, Geomechanics Rep., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ.of Minnessota.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, L. S., Huang, G. Z., and Chen, Y. C. (2009). “Acoustic emission evolution in indentation fracture of rocks under different lateral pressure free boundaries.” Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 12, pp. 2411–2420.Google Scholar
  11. Cho, N. A., Martin, C. D., and Sego, D. C. (2007). “A clumped particle model for rock.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 7, pp. 997–1010, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2007.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carpinteri, A. and Invernizzi, S. (2005). “Numerical analysis of the cutting interaction between indenters acting on disordered materials.” International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 131, No. 2, pp. 143–154, DOI: 10.1007/s10704-004-3635-7.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Carpinteri, A., Chiaia, B., and Invernizzi, S. (2004). “Numerical analysis of indentation fracture in quasi-brittle materials.” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 71, No. 4, pp. 567–577, DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7944(03)00037-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chevaugeon, N., Moë s, N., Minnebo, H. (2013). “Improved crack tip enrichment functions and integration for crack modeling using the extended finite element method.” International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 597–631, DOI: 10.1615/IntJMultCompEng.2013006523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Detournay, E., Fairhurst, C., and Labuz, J. A. (1995). Model of tensile failure initiation under an indenter, In: Rossmanith P, editor. Proceedings of second international conference mechanics of jointed and faulted rock (MJFR-2), Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  16. Fowell, R. J. (2013). “The mechanics of rock cutting.” Comprehensive Rock Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 155–176, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-042067-7.50014-3.Google Scholar
  17. Giannakopoulos, A. E. and Suresh, S. (1999). “Determination of elastoplastic properties by instrumented sharp indentation.” Scripta Materialia, Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 1191–1198, DOI: 10.1016/S1359-6462(99)00011-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang, H. and Detournay, E. (2013). “Discrete element modeling of tool-rock interaction II: Rock indentation.” International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 37, No. 13, pp. 1930–1947, DOI: 10.1002/nag.2114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huang, H. (1999). “Discrete element modeling of rock-tool interaction.” PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  20. Huang, H., Damjanac, B., and Detournay, E. (1998). “Normal wedge indentation in rocks with lateral confinement.” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 81–94, DOI: 10.1007/s006030050010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hood, M. C. and Roxborough, F. F. (1992). “Rock breakage: Mechanical.” SME Mining Engineering Handbook, Vol. 1, pp. 680–721.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, K. L. (1970). “The correlation of indentation experiments.” Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 115–126, DOI: 10.1016/0022-5096(70)90029-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnson, K. L. and Johnson, K. L. (1987). “Contact mechanics.” Cambridge University Press, DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139171731.Google Scholar
  24. Kalyan, B., Murthy, C. S. N., and Choudhary, R. P. (2015). “Rock indentation indices as criteria in rock excavation technology–A critical review.” Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, Vol. 11, pp. 149–158, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeps.2015.06.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kahraman, S., Fener, M., Kozman, E. (2012). “Predicting the compressive and tensile strength of rocks from indentation hardness index.” Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 112, No. 5, pp. 331–339.Google Scholar
  26. Kou, S. Q., Huang, Y., Tan, X. C., and Lindqvist, P. A. (1998). “Identification of the governing parameters related to rock indentation depth by using similarity analysis.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 261–269, DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7952(97)00057-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kou, S. Q., Lindqvist. P. A., and Tan, X. C. (1995). “An analytical and experimental investigation of rock indentation fracture, 8th ISRM Congress.” International Society for Rock Mechanics.Google Scholar
  28. Lawn, B. and Wilshaw, R. (1975). “Indentation fracture: principles and applications.” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 1049–1081, DOI: 10.1007/BF00823224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lawn, B. R. and Swain, M. V. (1975). “Microfracture beneath point indentations in brittle solids.” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 113–122, DOI: 10.1007/BF00541038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lawn, B. R. and Evans, A. G. (1977). “A model for crack initiation in elastic/plastic indentation fields.” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 12, No. 11, pp. 2195–2199, DOI: 10.1007/BF00552240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu, H. Y., Kou, S. Q., Lindqvist, P. A., and Tang, C. A. (2002). “Numerical simulation of the rock fragmentation process induced by indenters.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 491–505, DOI: 10.1016/S1365-1609 (02)00043-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Momber, A. W. (2004). “Deformation and fracture of rocks loaded with spherical indenters.” International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 125, No. 3, pp. 263–279, DOI: 10.1023/B:FRAC.0000022240.64448.2f.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mo, Z. Z., Li, H. B., Zhou, Q. C., Zou, F., and Zhu, X. M. (2012). “Experimental study of rock microscopic deterioration under wedge cutter.” Rock and Soil Mechanics, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 1333–1340.Google Scholar
  34. Paluszny, A., Zimmerman, R. W., Potjewyd, J., and Jarvis, B. (2014). “Finite element-based numerical modeling of fracture propagation due to the plunge of a spherical indenter.” 48th USRock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association.Google Scholar
  35. Rojek, J., Oñ ate, E., Labra, C., and Kargl, H. (2011). “Discrete element simulation of rock cutting.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 996–1010, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2011.06.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rabczuk, T. and Belytschko, T. (2004). “Cracking particles: A simplified meshfree method for arbitrary evolving cracks.” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 61, No. 13, pp. 2316–2343, DOI: 10.1002/nme.1151.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. Rabczuk, T. and Belytschko, T. (2007). “A three-dimensional large deformation meshfree method for arbitrary evolving cracks.” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 196, No. 29, pp. 2777–2799, DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2006.06.020.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  38. RRabczuk T., Zi, g., Bordas, s., Nguyen-Xuan, H. (2010). “A simple and robust three-dimensional cracking-particle method without enrichment.” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 199, No. 37, pp. 2437–2455, DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2010.03.031.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. Tan, X. C., Kou, S. Q., and Lindqvist, P. A. (1998). “Application of the DDM and fracture mechanics model on the simulation of rock breakage by mechanical tools.” Engineering Geology, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 277–284, DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7952(97)00059-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang, S. Y., Sloan, S. W., Liu, H. Y., and Tang, C. A. (2011). “Numerical simulation of the rock fragmentation process induced by two drill bits subjected to static and dynamic (impact) loading.” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol 44, No. 3, pp. 317–332, DOI: 10.1007/s00603-010-0123-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yin, L. J., Gong, Q. M., Ma, H. S., Zhao, J., and Zhao, X. B. (2014). “Use of indentation tests to study the influence of confining stress on rock fragmentation by a TBM cutter.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 72, pp. 261–276, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2014. 07.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yoon, J. (2013). “Application of experimental design and optimization to PFC model calibration in uniaxial compression simulation.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 871–889, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2007.01.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang, H., Huang, G., Song, H., and Kang, Y. (2012). “Experimental investigation of deformation and failure mechanisms in rock under indentation by digital image correlation.” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 96, pp. 667–675, DOI: 10.1016/j.engfracmech. 2012.09.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang, H., Song, H., Kang, Y., Huang, G., and Qu, C. (2013a). “Experimental analysis on deformation evolution and crack propagation of rock under cyclic indentation.” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 5, pp. 1053–1059, DOI: 10.1007/s00603-012-0309-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang, H. and Song, H. (2013b). Experimental Investigation on Deformation and failure of rock under cyclic indentation[C]//ICF13.Google Scholar
  46. Zhang, H., Song, H., Kang, Y., Huang, G., and Qu, C. (2013). “Experimental analysis on deformation evolution and crack propagation of rock under cyclic indentation.” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 5, pp. 1053–1059, DOI: 10.1007/s00603-012-0309-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhuang, X., Augarde, C. E., and Mathisen, K. M. (2012). “Fracture modeling using meshless methods and level sets in 3D: Framework and modeling.” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 92, No. 11, pp. 969–998, DOI:10.1002/nme.4365.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhuang, X., Zhu, H., and Augarde, C. (2014). “An improved meshless Shepard and least squares method possessing the delta property and requiring no singular weight function.” Computational Mechanics, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 343–357, DOI: 10.1007/s00466-013-0912-1.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechatronic EngineeringSouthwest Petroleum UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Deep Exploration Technologies Cooperative Research Centre, School of Civil, Environmental and Mining EngineeringThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations