KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 1431–1437 | Cite as

Low temperature impact toughness of structural steel welds with different welding processes

  • Hyun-Seop Shin
  • Ki-Tae Park
  • Chin-Hyung Lee
  • Kyong-Ho Chang
  • Vuong Nguyen Van Do
Structural Engineering


Influence of welding process and welding consumable on the impact toughness at low temperatures of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and the weld metal in a structural steel weldment was investigated. A comparison of the low temperature impact toughness was made between the welded joints fabricated by Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) and Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) processes, respectively. The Charpy impact tests along with the microstructural observations and the hardness measurements were carried out to derive the effective welding method to guarantee the higher impact toughness of the HAZ and the weld metal at low temperatures. Standard V-notch Charpy impact specimens were prepared and tested under dynamic loading condition. Variation of the Charpy impact energy with respect to the test temperature and that of the hardness across the welds were presented and correlated with the microstructure and the welding process. Analysis of the results unveiled that the weld metal of the FCAW joint has a little higher low temperature impact toughness owing to the higher nickel content, whilst the HAZ of the SMAW joint has much superior impact toughness at low temperatures attributed to the lower heat input; thus the efficient welding method to ensure higher low temperature impact toughness of the HAZ and the weld metal is to employ a low heat input welding process using a welding consumable with high nickel content.


low temperature impact toughness heat affected zone weld metal welding consumable welding process 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ASME (2004). Impact testing requirments, Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Sec. VIII Div. I.Google Scholar
  2. Bayraktar, E., Hugele, D., Jansen, J. P., and Kaplan, D. (2004). “Evaluation of pipeline laser girth weld properties by Charpy (V) toughness and impact tensile tests.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 147, No. 2, pp. 155-162, DOI:  10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2003.10.008.
  3. Ibrahim, O. H., Ibrahim, O. S., and Khalifa, T. A. F. (2010). “Impact behavior of different stainless steel weldments at low temperatures.” Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 1069–1076, DOI:  10.1016/j.engfailanal.2009.12.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Junhua, K., Lin, Z., Bin, G., Pinghe, L., Aihua, W., and Changsheng, X. (2004). “Influence of Mo content on microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength pipeline steel.” Materials and Design, Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 723–728, DOI:  10.1016/j.matdes.2004.03.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. KS B 0809 (2001). Test pieces for impact test for metallic materials, Korean Standards.Google Scholar
  6. KS B 0810 (2003). Method of impact test for metallic materials, Korean Standards.Google Scholar
  7. KS B 0821 (2007). Methods of tension and impact tests for deposited metal, Korean Standards.Google Scholar
  8. Lee, C. H., Shin, H. S., and Park, K. T. (2012). “Evaluation of high strength TMCP steel weld for use in cold regions.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 134–139, DOI:  10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.02.012.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. Lee, C. H., Shin, H. S., Park, K. T., and Chang, K. H. (2014). “Impact fracture energy of structural steel welds constructed at low ambient temperatures.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 394–400, DOI:  10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.09.043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Magudeeswaran, G., Balasubramanian, V., Reddy, G. M., and Balasubrarnanian, T. S. (2008). “Effect of welding processes and consumables on tensile and Impact properties of high strength quenched and tempered steel joints.” Journal of Iron and Steel Research International, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 87–94, DOI:  10.1016/S1006-706X(08)60273-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Moitra, A., Parameswaran, P., Sreenivasan, P. R., and Mannan, S. L. (2002). “A toughness study of the weld heat-affected zone of a 9Cr1Mo steel.” Materials Characterization, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 55–61, DOI:  10.1016/S1044-5803(02)00247-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Parker, J. D. and Stratford, G. C. (1999). “Review of factors affecting condition assessment of nickel based transition joints.” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 29–39, DOI:  10.1179/136217199322910734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Reddy, G. M., Mohandas, T., and Papukutty, K. K. (1998). “Effect of welding process on the ballistic performance of high-strength lowalloy steel weldments.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 74, Nos. 1–3, pp. 27–35, DOI:  10.1016/S0924-0136(97)00245-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ren, D., Xiao, F., Tian, P., Wang, X., and Liao, B. (2009). “Effects of welding wire composition and welding process on the weld metal toughness of submerged arc welded pipeline steel.” International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 65–70, DOI:  10.1016/S1674-4799(09)60011-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yang, J. R., Huang, C. Y., and Huang, C. F. (1993). “Influence of acicular ferrite and bainite microstructures on toughness for an ultralow-carbon alloy steel weld metal.” Journal of Materials Science Letters, Vol. 12, No. 16, pp. 1290–1293, DOI:  10.1007/BF00506341 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyun-Seop Shin
    • 1
  • Ki-Tae Park
    • 1
  • Chin-Hyung Lee
    • 2
  • Kyong-Ho Chang
    • 3
  • Vuong Nguyen Van Do
    • 4
  1. 1.Structural Engineering Research DivisionKorea Institute of Construction TechnologyGoyangKorea
  2. 2.The Graduate School of Construction EngineeringChung-Ang UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.Dept. of Civil and Environmental & Plant EngineeringChung-Ang UniversitySeoulKorea
  4. 4.Dept. of Civil EngineeringTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

Personalised recommendations