KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 1994–1999 | Cite as

Potentiality of Palm Oil Biomass with Cow Dung for compost production

  • Mohammadtaghi Vakili
  • Haider M. Zwain
  • Mohd Rafatullah
  • Zahra Gholami
  • Reza Mohammadpour
Environmental Engineering


Recently, researchers are focused on the use of biomasses generated in oil palm industry as compost to overcome their negative impacts and recycle them to produce a useful byproduct for agriculture. This study investigated formation of compost from Palm Oil Biomass (POB) by adding Cow Dung (CD). The experiment was carried out under shade in plastic bins at different POB and CD ratios (4:0, 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3) to activate decomposition mechanism up to 11 weeks. Decomposing materials was frequently moistened and turned accordingly. The addition of CD has facilitated the co posting process and treatment with 1:3 ratio of POB and CD had better quality than other treatments such that the C/N ratio, the Electrical Conductivity (EC) and pH for mature compost were 22.2, 2.83 mS.m-T and 7.81 respectively.


compost palm oil empty fruit bunch palm oil fronds cow dung 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alburquerque, J. A., Gonzálvez, J. García, D., and Cegarra, J. (2006). “Composting of a solid olive-mill by-product (“alperujo”) and the potential of the resulting compost for cultivating pepper under commercial conditions.” Waste Management, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 620–626, DOI:  10.1016/j.wasman.2005.04.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arslan, E. I., Öbek, E., Kirbağ, S., İpek, U., and Topal, M. (2008). “Determination of the effect of compost on soil microorganisms.” International Journal of Science & Technology, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 151–159.Google Scholar
  3. Bernal, M. P., Alburquerque, J. A., and Moral, R. (2009). “Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 100, No. 22, pp. 5444–5453, DOI:  10.1016/j.biortech.2008.11.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernal, M. P., Sãnchez-Monedero, M. A., Paredes, C., and Roig, A. (1998). “Carbon mineralization from organic wastes at different composting stages during their incubation with soil.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 69, No. 3, pp. 175–189, DOI:  10.1016/S0167-8809(98)00106-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, H.-F., Kumar, M., and Lin, J.-G. (2008). “Degradation kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and organic matter of sewage sludge during composting.” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 154, Nos. 1–3, pp. 55–62, DOI:  10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.09.105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dias, B. O., Silva, C. A., Higashikawa, F. S., Roig, A., and Sãnchez-Monedero, M. A. (2010). “Use of biochar as bulking agent for the composting of poultry kitter: Effect on organic matter degradation and humification.” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 4, pp. 1239–1246, DOI:  10.1016/j.biortech.2009.09.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gajalakshmi, S. and Abbasi, S. A. (2008). “Solid waste management by composting: State of the art.” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 311–400, DOI:  10.1080/10643380701413633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gao, M., Li, B., Yu, A., Liang, F., Yang, L., and Sun, Y. (2010). “The effect of aeration rate on forced-aeration composting of chicken manure and sawdust.” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 6, pp. 1899–1903, DOI:  10.1016/j.biortech.2009.10.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. García-de-la-Fuente, R., Cuesta, G., Sanchís-Jiménez, E., Botella, S., Abad, M., and Fornes, F. (2011). “Bacteria involved in sulfur amendment oxidation and acidification processes of alkaline ‘alperujo’ compost.” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 102, No. 2, pp. 1481–1488, DOI:  10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghoneim, A. (2008). “Impact of 15N-labeled rice straw and rice straw compost application on N mineralization and N uptake by rice.” International Journal of Plant Production, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 289–296.Google Scholar
  11. Gõmez-Brandõn, M., Lazcano, C., and Dominguez, J. (2008). “The evaluation of stability and maturity during the composting of cattle manure.” Chemosphere, Vol. 70, No. 3, pp. 436–444, DOI:  10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.06.065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hachicha, S., Sallemi, F., Medhioub, K., Hachicha, R., and Ammar, E. (2008). “Quality assessment of composts prepared with olive mill wastewater and agricultural wastes.” Waste Management, Vol. 28, No. 12, pp. 2593–2603, DOI:  10.1016/j.wasman.2007.12.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hella, F. A. (2007). “Composting of rice straw and its influences on iron availability in calcareous soil.” Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 105–114.Google Scholar
  14. Inckel, M., Smet, P. D., Tersmette, T., and Veldkamp, T. (2005). Preparation and use of compost (7th ed.), Agromisa Foundation Wageningen, Digigrafi, Wageningen, Netherland.Google Scholar
  15. Ishak, N. F., Ahmad, A. L., and Ismail, S. (2014). “Feasibility of anaerobic co-composting empty fruit bunch with activated sludge from palm oil mill wastes for soil conditioner.” Journal of Physical Science, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 77–92Google Scholar
  16. Kala, D. R., Rosenani, A. B., Fauziah, C. I., and Thohirah, L. A. (2009). “Composting oil palm wastes and sewage sludge for use in potting media of ornamental plants.” Malaysian Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 13, pp. 77–91.Google Scholar
  17. Karthikeyan, V., Sathyamoorthy, G. L., and Murugesan, R. (2007). “Vermi composting of market waste in Salem Tamilnadu India.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, Vol. 6, pp. 276–281.Google Scholar
  18. Kumar Singh, Y., Kalamdhad, A. S., Ali, M., and Kazmi, A. A. (2009). “Maturation of primary stabilized compost from rotary drum composter.” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 386–392, DOI:  10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liang, C., Das, K. C., and Mcclendon, R. W. (2003). “The influence of temperature and moisture contents regimes on the aerobic microbial activity of a biosolids composting blend.” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 131–137, DOI:  10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00153-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohammed, M. A. A., Salmiaton, A., Wan Azlina, W. A. K. G., Mohammad Amran, M. S., Fakhru’l-Razi, A., and Tufiq-Yap, Y. H. (2011). “Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 1258–1270, DOI:  10.1016/j.rser.2010.10.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Petric, I., Sestan, A., and Sestan, I. (2009). “Influence of wheat straw addition on composting of poultry kitter.” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 206–212, DOI:  10.1016/j.psep.2009.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ramaswamy, J., Prasher, S. O., Patel, R. M., Hussain, S. A., and Barrington, S. F. (2010). “The effect of composting on the degradation of a veterinary pharmaceutical.” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 6, pp. 2294–9, DOI:  10.1016/j.biortech.2009.10.089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rynk, R., van de Kamp, M., Willson, G. B., Singley, M. E., Richard, T. L., Kolega, J. J., Gouin, F. R., Laliberty, Jr. L., Kay, D., Murphy, D. W., Hoitink, H. A. J., and Brinton, W. F. (1992). On-farm composting handbook, (Ed). Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Ithaca, N.Y.Google Scholar
  24. Said-Pullicino, D., Erriquens, F. G., and Gigliotti, G. (2007). “Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extractable organic matter during composting and their influence on compost stability and maturity.” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 98, No. 9, pp. 1822–1831, DOI:  10.1016/j.biortech.2006.06.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sarwar, G., Hussain, N., Schmeisky, H., and Muhammad, S. (2007). “Use of compost an environment friendly technology for enhancing rice-wheat production in Pakistan.” Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 1553–1558.Google Scholar
  26. Sharma, D. C. and Forster, C. F. (1995). “Column studies into the adsorption of chromium (VI) using sphagnum moss peat.” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 261–267, DOI:  10.1016/0960-8524(95)00035-d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shilev, S., Naydenov, M., Vancheva, V., and Aladjadjiyan, A. (2007). Utilization of by-products and treatment of waste in the food industry, Springer US, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Tiquia, S. M. and Tam, N. F. Y. (2002). “Characterization and composting of poultry litter in forced-aeration piles.” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 37, No. 8, pp. 869–880, DOI:  10.1016/S0032-9592(01)00274-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vakili, M., Haque, A. A. M., and Gholami, Z. (2012a). “Effect of manual turning frequency on physico-chemical parameters during the oil palm frond and cow dung composting.” Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research, Vol. 1, No. 12, pp. 49–59.Google Scholar
  30. Vakili, M., Haque, A. A. M., Hosseini, S. M., and Salamatinia, B. (2012b). “Evaluation of maturation and stability some indexes of mixed palm oil biowaste composting process and poultry litter.” World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 234–240, DOI:  10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.19.02.1404.Google Scholar
  31. Vakili, M., Rafatullah, M., Ibrahim, M. H., Salamatinia, B., Gholami, Z., and Zwain, H. M. (2014). “A review on composting of oil palm biomass.” Environment, Development and Sustainability, pp. 1–19, DOI:  10.1007/s10668-014-9581-2.Google Scholar
  32. Yacob, S., Alihassan, M., Shirai, Y., Wakisaka, M., and Subash, S. (2006). “Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 366, No. 1, pp. 187–196, DOI:  10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.07.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammadtaghi Vakili
    • 1
  • Haider M. Zwain
    • 2
  • Mohd Rafatullah
    • 1
  • Zahra Gholami
    • 3
  • Reza Mohammadpour
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri AmpanganNibong Tebal, Pulau PinangMalaysia
  3. 3.Centralized Analytical LaboratoryUniversiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri IskandarTronoh, PerakMalaysia
  4. 4.River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre (REDAC)Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri AmpanganNibongTebal, Pulau PenangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations