KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 1342–1350 | Cite as

Model tests on reinforced sloped embankment with denti-strip inclusions under monotonic loading

  • M. X. ZhangEmail author
  • C. C. Qiu
  • A. A. Javadi
  • S. L. Zhang
Geotechnical Engineering


Denti-strip inclusion is a new type reinforcement that consists of conventional strip type reinforcement and vertical inclusions which are installed on the strip in spacing. A series of laboratory model tests were carried out on a physical model of reinforced sloped embankment with strip inclusions and denti-strip inclusions under surcharge. Compared with strip reinforcement, it is found that due to the existence of vertical reinforcing elements which provided passive resistances against shearing and enhanced soil strength, denti-strip inclusions are more effective in improving the ultimate surcharge, reducing the settlement and restricting the lateral displacement of the slope. Furthermore, the shear bands in the embankment reinforced with two-layer inclusions under the condition without cutting of reinforcements are separated into several discontinuous arc bands by the inclusions unlike the single continuous arc in unreinforced embankment; the inclination angles of the shear bands are greater than that of unreinforced embankment and the position of the lower arc is close to the mid-height of embankment.


denti-strip inclusion reinforced slope model test ultimate surcharge failure surface 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alamshahi, S. and Hataf, N. (2009). “Bearing capacity of strip footings on sand slopes reinforced with geogrid and grid-anchor.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 217–226 DOI:  10.1016/j.geotexmem.2008.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergado, D. T., Long, P. V., Lee, C. H., Loke, K. H., and Werner, G. (1994). “Performance of reinforced embankment on soft Bangkok clay with high-strength geotextile reinforcement.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 13, Nos. 6–7, pp. 403–420, DOI:  10.1016/0266-1144(94)90005-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergado, D. T., Long, P. V., and Srinivasa Murthy, B. R. (2002). “A case study of geotextile reinforced embankment on soft ground.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 343–365 DOI:  10.1016/S0266-1144(02)00032-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Choudhary, A. K., Jha, J. N., and Gill, K. S. (2010). “Laboratory investigation of bearing capacity behaviour of strip footing on reinforced flyash slope.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 393–402 DOI:  10.1016/j.geotexmem.2009.09.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. El Sawwaf, M. (2007). “Behavior of strip footing on geogrid-reinforced sand over a soft clay slope.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes,Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 50–60, DOI:  10.1016/j.geotexmem.2006.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. El Sawwaf, M. and Nazir, A. (2006). “The effect of soil reinforcement on pullout resistance of an existing vertical anchor plate in sand.” Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 167–176 DOI:  10.1016/j.compgeo.2006.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hataf, N. and Rabimi, M. M. (2005). “Experimental investigation of bearing capacity of sand reinforced with randomly distributed tire shreds.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 20, No. 10, pp. 910–916 DOI:  10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.06.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Horpibulsuk, S. and Niramitkornburee, A. (2010). “Pullout resistance of bearing reinforcement embedded in sand.” Soils and Foundations, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 215–226 DOI:  10.3208/sandf.50.215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang, C. C., Tatsuoka, F., and Sato, Y. (1994). “Failure mechanisms of reinforced sand slopes loaded with a footing.” Soils and Foundations, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 27–40 DOI:  10.3208/sandf1972.34.2_27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Humphrey, D. N. and Holtz, R. D. (1986). “Reinforced embankments-A review of case histories.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 129–144 DOI:  10.1016/0266-1144(86)90020-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee, K. M. and Manjunath, V. R. (2000). “Experimental and numerical studies of geosynthetic-reinforced sand slopes loaded with a footing.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 828–842 DOI:  10.1139/t00-016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mattox, R. M. (1987). “Geogrid reinforcement for Cochrane bridge embankment.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 6, Nos. 1–3, pp. 225–232, DOI:  10.1016/0266-1144(87)90068-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mittal, S., Shah, M. Y., and Verma, N. K. (2009). “Experimental study of footing on reinforced earth slope.” International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 251–260 DOI:  10.3328/IJGE.2009.03.02.251-260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mosallanezhad, M., Hataf, N., and Ghahramani, A. (2008). “Experimental study of bearing capacity of granular soils, reinforced with innovative grid-anchor system.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 26, No.3, pp. 299–312, DOI:  10.1007/s10706-007-9166-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rowe, R. K. and Gnanendran, C. T. (1994). “Geotextile strain in a full scale reinforced test embankment.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 13, No. 12, pp. 781–806 DOI:  10.1016/0266-1144(94)00015-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wu, J. T. H., Siel, B. D., Chou, N. N. S., and Helwany, H. B. (1992). “The effectiveness of geosynthetic reinforced embankments constructed over weak foundations.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 133–150 DOI:  10.1016/0266-1144(92)90041-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Yoo, C. (2001). “Laboratory investigation of bearing capacity behavior of strip footing on geogrid- reinforced sand slope.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 279–298 DOI:  10.1016/S0266-1144(01)00009-7.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhang, M. X., Javadi, A. A., and Min, X. (2006). “Triaxial tests of sand reinforced with 3D inclusions.” Geotextiles and Geomembrances, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 201–209 DOI:  10.1016/j.geotexmem.2006.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zhang, M. X., Zhang, S. L., Huang, J., and Javadi, A. A. (2008a). “Ultimate pullout forces of orthogonally horizontal-vertical geosynthetic reinforcement.” Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Earth Reinforcement (IS Kyushu 07), Fukuoka Japan, pp. 289–292.Google Scholar
  20. Zhang, M. X. and Zhou, H. (2008). “Model test on sand retaining wall reinforced with denti-strip inclusions.” Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, Vol. 51, No. 12, pp. 2269–2279 DOI:  10.1007/s11431-008-0222-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zhang, M. X., Zhou, H., Javadi, A. A. and Wang, Z. W. (2008b). “Experimental and theoretical investigation of strength of soil reinforced with multi-layer horizontal-vertical orthogonal elements.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 1–13 DOI:  10.1016/j.geotexmem.2007.06.001.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. X. Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. C. Qiu
    • 2
  • A. A. Javadi
    • 3
  • S. L. Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Civil EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringYancheng Institute of TechnologyYanchengChina
  3. 3.Dept. of Engineering College of Engineering Mathematics and Physical SciencesUniversity of ExeterExeter, DevonUK

Personalised recommendations