KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 1023–1031 | Cite as

Applicability of the SPT-based methods for estimating toe bearing capacity of driven PHC piles in the thick deltaic deposits

  • N. T. Dung
  • S. G. Chung
  • S. R. Kim
  • S. H. Beak
Article

Abstract

Standard Penetration Test (SPT)-based design methods for pile foundations have been extensively used in Korean practice. However, their applicability for local application has seldom been examined, particularly for the thick deposits, such as in the Nakdong River deltaic area. This paper examines the applicability of three common SPT-based methods to deep sandy deposits in the delta. Routine SPT data, in which the test was completed for each of the N = 50 blows at less than 30 cm penetration in the last two increments of 15 cm, were adopted. A special SPT was conducted to examine the general relationship between penetration and blow counts in dense sands. Based on the special SPT and another well-documented case study, a simple linear extrapolation was developed to estimate data equivalent to N > 50. PDA (Pile Driving Analyzer) tests were also carried out to evaluate energy efficiency of the donut hammer used for the routine SPT. Energy correction factor (CE) was determined as 0.9. Using the corrected N-values, the estimated SPT-based toe resistances were compared with data obtained from PDA tests, field load tests on piles, and a CPT (Cone Penetration Test)-based method. Results indicate that the SPT-based methods generally manifest a rather low reliability. The recommended Meyerhof’s method is deemed applicable for the preliminary design.

Keywords

toe resistance standard penetration test N-value PDA test CPT PHC pile 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AASHTO (2007). Standard specifications for highway bridge, 18th Edition, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Aoki, N. and de Alencar, D. (1975). “An approximate method to estimate the bearing capacity of piles.” Proceeding, the 5 th Pan-American Conference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Buenos Aires, Vol. 1, pp.367–376.Google Scholar
  3. ASTM D6066 (1996). Standard practice for determining the normalized penetration resistance of sand for evaluation of liquefaction potential, American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM.Google Scholar
  4. ASTM D1586 (1999). Standard test method for penetration test and split-barrel sampling of soils, American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM.Google Scholar
  5. ASTM D4633 (2005). Standard test method for energy measurement for dynamic penetrometers, American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM.Google Scholar
  6. Chung, S. G., Giao, P. H., Kim, G. J., and Leroueil, S. (2002). “Geotechnical characteristics of Pusan clays.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 1050–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. CFEM (2006). Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual, 4th edition, Canadian Geotechnical Society, 485p.Google Scholar
  8. Clayton, C. R. I. (1993). The Standard Penetration Test (SPT): Methods and use, Report Prepared under Contract to CIRIA by the University of Surrey, p. 130.Google Scholar
  9. Daniel, C. R. (2000). Split spoon penetration testing in gravels, Master Thesis, The University of British Columbia, 187p.Google Scholar
  10. Decourt, L. (1995). “Prediction of load-settlement relationships for foundations on the basis of the SPT-T.” Ciclo de Conferencias Inter. “Leonardo Zeevaert”, UNAM, Mexico, pp. 85–104.Google Scholar
  11. Dung, N. T. (2008). Evaluation of design parameters and performance of driven pile foundations in the thick delta deposits, PhD Thesis, Dong-A University, p. 236.Google Scholar
  12. Dung, N. T., Chung, S. G., and Kim, S. R. (2007). “Comparative study between design methods and pile load tests for bearing capacity of driven PHC piles in the Nakdong River delta.” Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 61–75.Google Scholar
  13. Fellenius, B. H., Kim, S. R., and Chung, S. G. (2009). “Long-term monitoring of strain in instrumented piles.” J. of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 135, No. 11, pp. 1583–1595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. FHWA (1996). Design and construction of driven pile foundations, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA-HI-97-013.Google Scholar
  15. GGEH (2001). Geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering handbook, Edited by R.K. Rowe, Kluwer Academic Publisher, p. 1088.Google Scholar
  16. Hung, L. C., Kim, S. R., and Chung, S. G. (2008). “Applicability of CPT-based toe bearing capacity of driven PHC piles.” Proceeding of the KGS (Korean Geotechnical Society) Geotechnical Engineering Conference, Kwangju, pp. 792–798.Google Scholar
  17. ISSMFE (1989). “International reference test procedure for cone penetration test (CPT).” Report of the ISSMFE Technical Committee on Penetration Testing of Soils — TC16, with Reference to Test Procedures, Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoping, Information, 7, pp. 6–16.Google Scholar
  18. KGS (2003). Design criteria of structure foundations, Korean Geotechnical Society.Google Scholar
  19. Kim, S. R., Chung, S. G., and Dung, N. T. (2006). “Determination of true resistance from load transfer test performed on a PHC pile.” Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 113–122.Google Scholar
  20. Kim, S. R., Chung, S. G., and Lee, B. Y. (2008). “Analysis of a bidirectional load test result on long PHC piles in consideration of residual load.” Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 85–93.Google Scholar
  21. KSF 2307 (2007). Test method for standard penetration, Korean Industrial Standards.Google Scholar
  22. Kulhawy, F. H. and Mayne, P. H. (1990). Manual on estimating soil properties for foundation design, Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI.Google Scholar
  23. Lee, M. H., Kang, W. T., Lee, W. J., and Kim, Y. J. (1992), “Evaluation of the falling velocity of SPT hammer via actual measurement”, Geotechnical Engineering, Korean Geotechnical Socieity, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 59–66.Google Scholar
  24. Lee, C. H. and Lee, W. J. (2005), “Ratio of hammer energy and dynamic efficiency of standard penetraion test.” Journal of Korean Geotechnical Society, Vol. 12, No. 9, pp. 5–12.Google Scholar
  25. Lee, M. H. and Yun, S. J. (1992). “Comparison of the methods used in determining the pile design load.” Proceedings of the KGS (Korean Geotechnical Society)Geotechnical Engineering Conference, pp. 69–102.Google Scholar
  26. Liao, S. S. C. and Withman, R. V. (1986). “Overburden correction factors for SPT in sand.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 112, No. 3, pp. 373–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Likins, G. E. and Rausche, F. (2004). “Correlation of CAPWAP with static load test.” Proceeding of the 7 th International on Application of Stresswave Theory to Piles, Petaling Jaya Malaysia, pp. 153–165.Google Scholar
  28. Likins, G. E., Rausche, F., Thendean, G., and Svinkin, M. (1996). “CAPWAP correlation studies.” Proceeding of the 5 th International on Application of Stresswave Theory to Piles, University of Florida, Orlando Florida, USA. pp. 447–464.Google Scholar
  29. Meyerhof, G. G. (1976). “Bearing capacity and settlement of pile foundations.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, The Eleventh Terzaghi Lecture, ASCE, Vol. 102,GT3, pp. 195–228.Google Scholar
  30. Park, Y. W., Lee, H. C., and Park, J. H. (1994). “A comparison of SPT hammer energy.” Proceeding of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers Conference, pp. 821–824.Google Scholar
  31. Poulos, H. G. (2001). “Pile foundations.” Chapter 10, Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook, Edited by R.K. Rowe, Kluwer Academic Publisher, p. 1088.Google Scholar
  32. Robert, Y. (1997). “A few comments on pile design.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 560–567.Google Scholar
  33. Schmertmann, J. H. (1978). “Use of SPT to measure soil properties? - Yes, But..!” Dynamic Geotechnical Testing, (STP 654), ASTM, pp. 341–355.Google Scholar
  34. Shariatmadari, N., Eslami A., and Karimpour, M. (2006). “A new approach to estimate the base bearing capacity of driven piles based on SPT data.” Proceedings of the 31 st Annual Conference on Deep Foundations, DFI, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  35. Shioi, Y. and Fukui, J. (1982). “Application of N-value to design of foundations in Japan.” Proceeding of the Second European Symposium on Penetration Testing, Amsterdam, Vol. 1, pp. 159–164.Google Scholar
  36. Skempton, A.W. (1986). “Standard penetration test procedures and the effects in sands of overburden pressure, relative density, particle size, aging and overconsolidation.” Geotechnique, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 425–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. White, D. J. (2005). “A general framework for shaft resistance on displacement piles in sand.” Proceeding of the 1 st International Symposium on Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics (ISFOG-2005), Gourvenec and Cassidy (Eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 697–703.Google Scholar
  38. White, D. J. and Lehane, B. M. (2004). “Friction fatigue on displacement piles in sand.” Geotechnique, Vol. 54, No. 10, pp. 645–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. T. Dung
    • 1
  • S. G. Chung
    • 1
  • S. R. Kim
    • 1
  • S. H. Beak
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Civil EngineeringDong-A UniversityBusanKorea
  2. 2.GY Tech Construction Co., LtdBusanKorea

Personalised recommendations