Wave Forces and Moments on a Gravity Pier Foundation

  • Chengxun Wei (韦承勋)Email author
  • Daocheng Zhou (周道成)
  • Jinping Ou (欧进萍)


In order to understand the wave forces and moments on a gravity pier foundation which consists of an upper column and a bottom gravity base, a model experiment with a scale of 1 : 60 has been conducted in a laboratory flume. A corresponding numerical calculation by using the boundary element method has been carried out to provide a comparative analysis. It is shown by the comparisons that the numerical wave forces and moments agree well with the experimental results. It is proved that the wave forces and moments acting on the foundation are completely in their inertia dominative areas for wave loads. With the diffraction effects considered into the inertia item, appropriate inertia coefficients are assessed by the experimental results for the inertia item of the Morison equation. The formula of the inertia item can be used to estimate wave forces and moments on such gravity foundations.

Key words

gravity pier foundation model experiment wave forces and moments numerical calculation inertia coefficient 

CLC number

U 441 

Document code


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    MORISON J R, O’BRIEN M P, JOHNSON J W, et al. The force exerted by surface waves on piles [J]. Petroleum Transactions, AIME, 1950, 189: 149–154.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    MACCAMY R C, FUCHS R A. Wave forces on piles: A diffraction theory [R]. Washington, USA: US Army Beach Erosion Board, 1954.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    MOGRIDGE G R, JAMIESON W W. Wave forces on a circular caisson: Theory and experiment [J]. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 1975, 2(4): 540–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    NEELAMANI S, SUNDAR V, VENDHAN C P. Dynamic pressure distribution on a cylinder due to wave diffraction [J]. Ocean Engineering, 1989, 16(4): 343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    WILLAMS A N. Wave forces on an elliptic cylinder [J]. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 1985, 111: 433–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    MANSOUR A M, WILLIAMS A N, WANG KI H. The diffraction of linear waves by a uniform vertical cylinder with cosine-type radial perturbations [J]. Ocean Engineering, 2002, 29(3): 239–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    NEWMAN J N. Algorithms for the free-surface Green function [J]. Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 1985, 19(1): 57–67.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    TENG B, TAYLOR R E. New higher-order boundary element methods for wave diffraction/radiation [J]. Applied Ocean Research, 1995, 17: 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    NEWMAN J N, LEE C H. Boundary-element methods in offshore structure analysis [J]. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 2002, 124: 81–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    LIU Y Y, IWASHITA H, HU C H. A calculation method for finite depth free-surface green function [J]. International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, 2015, 7(2): 375–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    MA Q W, WU G X, TAYLOR R E. Finite element simulation of fully non-linear interaction between vertical cylinders and steep waves. Part 1: Methodology and numerical procedure [J]. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 2001, 36(3): 265–285.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    KIM J W, KYOUNG J H, ERTEKIN R C, et al. Finite-element computation of wave-structure interaction between steep stokes waves and vertical cylinders [J]. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 2006, 132(5): 337–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    LAN Y M, LIU H, HUANG F X, et al. Experimental studies on hydrodynamic loads on piles and slab of Donghai bridge. Part II: Hydrodynamic forces on pile array and slab in wave-current combinations [J]. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 2005, 20(3): 332–339 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    LIU S X, LI Y C, LI G W. Wave current forces on the pile group of base foundation for the East Sea Bridge, China [J]. Journal of Hydrodynamics, Ser B, 2007, 19(6): 661–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    WEI C X, ZHOU D C, OU J P. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic responses of a bridge tower to waves and wave currents [J]. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 2017, 143(3): 4017002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chengxun Wei (韦承勋)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daocheng Zhou (周道成)
    • 1
  • Jinping Ou (欧进萍)
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina

Personalised recommendations